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Brother's Sausage

Recalling the sequential progression of a classical frieze in its monumental scale and rich communicative power, Jean-Michel Basquiat’s breathtaking Brother’s Sausage demonstrates the artist’s most creative reimagining of the weighted genre of history painting.  With a typically post-modern flair, Basquiat brands his series of canvases with myriad idiosyncratic cultural signifiers that dissolve the long-upheld distinctions between mass media and fine art. Framing the divergent narrative from opposing ends, the six conjoined canvases that constitute Brother’s Sausage collectively stage an enigmatic semiotic drama that unfolds through such seemingly disparate references to cultural signifiers such as a household sausage brand, the ‘big bad wolf,’ and the American currency. Set against a backdrop of Basquiat’s unique symbolic lexicon – an alternative reality inhabited by mythic beasts, cartoon heroes and food packaging – and filtered through his unique experience as a black artist of rising fame, this expressive panorama offers a psychologically coded evocation of the painter’s direct cultural milieu: the artistic hub of downtown Manhattan in the pivotal year of 1983. Expressing the coalescence of a burgeoning avant-garde art scene amidst an urban landscape bedecked with street-art and the ephemeral detritus of consumerism, Basquiat gives cinematic form to the heterogeneous vibrancy of a new creative epicenter, underscored by the infant rhythms of hip-hop and the clatter of metropolitan life. Across six varied panels the young artist flaunts the staggering reach of his aesthetic through a masterful balance of mediums and techniques. From the think impasto of luscious gestural brushwork and the strident graphic demarcation of oil stick, to the layering of collage, washes of abstract effervescence and the timely introduction of his drawings through Xerox copies, Brother’s Sausage unequivocally demonstrates the revolutionary strides and unmistakable bravado that afforded Basquiat unprecedented international acclaim at this time. The work is part of a limited series of monumental paintings that witness Basquiat hinging multiple canvases together with a deliberately hand-crafted sensibility that recalls his earlier reliance on ad-hoc surfaces. As such, this rare and important object has captivated the attention of Basquiat connoisseurs since its creation, having previously hung in the home of renowned dealer and progenitor of the Basquiat catalogue raisonné, Enrico Navarra. Expressing key elements of the artist’s esoteric symbolism and taking its namesake from a consumer brand, Brother’s Sausage crucially offers both a celebration and a critique of the cacophonous onslaught of commercial desire on the subjectivity of a modern man, defined along the axes of race, money and power.  Born into a regular working family in Brooklyn, New York, at the age of seventeen Basquiat dropped out of school and moved to Manhattan’s spirited Lower East Side. With few resources other than sheer determination, within just four years the young artist progressed from intermittent bouts of homelessness and the ubiquitous dissemination of his “SAMO” graffiti tag across the city, to being introduced to an enamored art world as “The Radiant Child” through René Ricard’s seminal Artforum article of December 1981.  By 1983 Basquiat had already in the previous year shown at the legendary Documenta 7 in Kassel as the youngest of 176 artists, and in March he became one of the youngest artists to have ever exhibited at the Whitney Biennial in New York.  Basquiat’s early success provided him with this confidence to be more ambitious in scale, structure and technique. Recalling the makeshift aesthetic of Rauschenberg’s revered Combine paintings, Brother’s Sausage is one of only five multi-panel works from 1983 that Basquiat constructed by joining six or seven canvases together with metal hinges that he left visible on the picture plane. Like a slapdash folding screen or a piece of theatrical scenery, the work supersedes the boundaries between painting and object, recalling the artist’s early financial hardship during which, as long term friend Mary Ann Monforton reported, “Basquiat painted on anything he could get his hands on: refrigerators, laboratory coats, cardboard boxes, and doors.” (“Interview with Franklin Sirmans,” January 31, 1992, in Exh. Cat., New York, Whitney Museum of American Art (and travelling) Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1992, p. 235) The present work’s profound recall of desolate shop fronts plastered with posters and graffiti  enshrines the ephemeral threads of the city’s visual fabric as Basquiat’s enduring source of inspiration. However, by also indulging in an immense horizontal format that emulates ancient architectural entablature, Basquiat uses his unique aesthetic to reconfigure classical ideals of pictorial storytelling embodied in paradigms such as the Renaissance altarpiece or the Elgin marbles of the Parthenon; a calculated nod to the fine art establishment that his early institutional recognition had placed him at the heart of. Considered in comparison with the other 1983 ‘hinged’ works, Brother’s Sausage shows the greatest variation in visual registers and techniques between the panels, whilst still remaining visually cohesive. As such, Basquiat hints at the notion of legible narrative, whilst ultimately denying it by constructing an unstable nexus of evasively referential images, words, and abstract idioms that express infinite semantic possibilities. With characteristic gestural bravura, Basquiat introduces the central theme of consumerism into Brother’s Sausage by way of the expressively painted “FAMOUS SAUSAGE” and coin motifs that act as the resolved bookends to the grand progression of images. Unlike iconic brands such as Brillo and Campbell’s Soup, which were immortalized by Pop Art pioneer Andy Warhol, the commercial signs Basquiat chose here are typically esoteric while retaining the bold simplicity that is a hallmark of visual merchandizing. Like a hand-painted butcher’s window, the first canvas inaugurates the artwork’s eponymous sausage company through a hybrid logo that appears as a visual mélange of signs from its packaging. This includes the company’s founding date and a list of the edible ingredients, framed by links of comically exaggerated red sausages that also reappear in the work’s third panel. Playfully indulging in the ambiguity of visual signs, Basquiat here conflates the reduced symbols of advertising and the free loops of gestural abstraction. Similarly tearing apart distinctions between cultural genres, Basquiat’s punctuated structuring of words enables a banal list of quotidian ingredients to take on a rhythmic quality that draws from the artist’s experience as a musician and DJ during the birth of New York’s hip-hop scene. Rap’s driving lyrical power translates to Basquiat’s persistent sampling and rhythmic repetition of words such as “Famous”. Highlighted in a blood red paint, this subtle indication of his unbridled ambition is repeated in the Xerox collage, which Basquiat lauds as the ultimate referential medium. Incorporated into the “Bros Famous Sausage” logo is a charismatic depiction of a menacing wolf whose symbolic ambiguity serves as a point of enigmatic entry into the works plethora of endless semantic registers. Basquiat often drew inspiration from comic books and this villainous, hat-bearing wolf is in direct reference to the 1943 feature Dumb Hounded, illustrated by his favorite cartoon artist Tex Avery. In the Twentieth Century, however, the iconic image of the ‘big bad wolf’ was equally popularized through Walt Disney’s Silly Symphony cartoons and the relentlessly catchy tune “who’s afraid of the big bad wolf” that provided both an uplifting anthem and a haunting soundtrack to the Great Depression of the 1930s. Developing the common historic associations between the ‘big bad wolf’ and the United States’ devastating interwar economic decline, Basquiat brings in solemn monetary associations in the final panel. At the center of a stark blackness the words “LIBERTY” glisten from the depiction of a 1951 dime. Paralleling the commercial logo of the first panel, the artist calls upon this powerful word as a commonly recognized slogan for the American dream.  At the dime’s center we see the crudely rendered coin portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States for much of the great depression from 1933-1945. His profile is rendered in a distinctly abstracted structure reminiscent of the appropriation of African art within the idioms of western modernism. Building upon this dialogue, Basquiat contrasts the pink skin tone of his Roosevelt with a dark black ground and an inflection of ochre that shines through from beneath the head. Through symbolically simple colors that parallel the reductive ignorance of prejudice, Basquiat finds an apt chapter of history through which he initiates a dialogue on the economic dimensions of race relations in America and the history of its art. Indeed, it was Roosevelt who in 1941 signed Executive Order 8802 which forbid race discrimination in defense related industries, and which crucially formed a precursor to historic Title VII of the Civil Rights Act that would come into force decades later and forever change the social fabric of the nation. Transporting this historic precedent to the urban present, Basquiat questions the remaining presence of institutionalized racism in America. Born to Puerto-Rican and Haitian parents, Basquiat embodied the sheer determination, intelligence and skill that he believed would be necessary to gain respect in not only an almost exclusively white art world, but the almost exclusively ‘white’ western art historical tradition. Weaving a nuanced tapestry imbued with a deep awareness of the cultural legacies that defined his position as an African American artist, through Brother’s Sausage and the revolutionary oeuvre of which it is a paradigmatic masterwork, Basquiat rendered for himself a unique and enduring place within the meta-narrative of art history, remaining as one of its most radical and visionary painters. The signatory power of Basquiat’s forms are intimately tied to his multiple techniques. Reveling in a definitive Neo-Expressionist idiom whilst exercising a sophisticated knowledge of art history, Basquiat’s gestural brushwork across the work’s six canvases intuitively recalls the legacy of Abstract Expressionism. In the crudely delineated red sausages that animate the third panel and the vertical drips of fluid blue that caress its length, Basquiat recalls both the luscious abstract moldings of Willem de Kooning and the ecstatic drips of Jackson Pollok with a typically irreverent sense of humor. The dynamic energy of Franz Kline is recalled in the more aggressive zones of jagged marks that demarcate the figurative elements of the first and last panels, whilst the effusively merging vibrations of Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still find place in the color field evocations of the fifth panel.  This is taken to an extreme in the second panel, which shows Basquiat’s rare submission to pure tonal abstraction as he indulges in the shimmering optical splendor of a graduated sky blue, imbued with the subtleties of texture from an underlying layering of paper collage. In no other work does Basquiat devote an entire panel to this captivating effect of  light and shadow, displaying a calm serenity that privileges a sense of ethereal beauty, found in even the most disposable material amidst an urban cacophony. The delicate strata of aqua tissues provide a moment of calm that contrasts with the pervasive presence of printed Xerox collage, which read as frenzied outbursts of uncontrollable creative expression and allude to Basquiat’s superlative talents as a draftsman. Central in importance within the artist’s wider methodology, as noted by Robert Storr, “Drawing, for him was something you did rather than something done, an activity rather than a medium. The seemingly throw-away sheets that carpeted his studio might appear little more than warm-ups for painting, except that the artist, a shrewd connoisseur of his own off-hand and under foot inventions did not in fact throw them away, but instead kept the best for constant reference and re-use. Or, kept them because they were, quite simply, indestructibly vivid.” (Robert Storr, “Two Hundred Beats Per Min,” in Exh. Cat., New York, The Robert Miller Gallery, Basquiat Drawings, 1990, n.p.) Channeling the kinetic scrawl of Cy Twombly and child-like characterizations of Jean Dubuffet, the collaged drawings in Brother’s Sausage provide a cathartic map of Basquiat’s subconscious. As noted by Fred Hofmann, “He discovered that he could shut out the myriad stimuli constantly bombarding him from the outside world; and at the same time, he could enable impressions, thoughts, memories, associations, fantasies, and observations formulating in his mind to simply pass through him, making their way onto a sheet of paper. From a very early age, Basquiat discovered that drawing was a process of ‘channeling’ in which he essentially functioned as a medium.” (Fred Hoffman in Exh. Cat., New York, Acquavella Galleries, Jean-Michel Basquiat Drawings: Work from the Schorr Family Collection, 2014, p. 33) Utilizing the quotidian office technology of the photocopier, Basquiat accessed a far more rapid form of image duplication than the dense silkscreen method pioneered by Warhol, whom the young artist regarded as both lauded mentor and friend at the time. Effectively usurping Warhol’s obsession with domestic products and household names, Basquiat here creates a brand of himself through the repetitive exploitation of his unique visual idiom. Crucially, Basquiat copies his own drawings, repurposing again the characters from Greek and pagan myths, as well as the popular cartoons, that collectively typify the artist’s broad cultural purview. By plastering his stream of visual consciousness onto the canvas through collaged copies, Basquiat emulates the successive buildup of advertisements on city walls, underground flyposting and commercial billboards. As such, Brother’s Sausage reflects not only the artist’s penchant for self-promotion, but his undying infatuation with urbanity: a psycho-physical space through which he inserts his unique subjectivity into the grand genre of history of painting.

  • GBRGroßbritannien
  • 2016-11-18



“They came, with the artist in his mid-seventies, as the climax of a period in which the paintings...with their massively congested, deeply luminous color, their contrasts between flowing and broken forms, attain at their best a total painterliness in which marks and image coalesce completely and every inch of the canvas quivers with teeming energy." David Sylvester, About Modern Art: Critical Essays 1948-1996, London, 2001, pp. 349-350 "De Kooning’s paintings of the Seventies are an annihilation of distance. The close-ups are about closeness, a consuming closeness. These paintings are crystallizations of the experience and amazement of having body and mind dissolve into another who is all delight.”  David Sylvester, About Modern Art: Critical Essays 1948-1996, London, 2001, pp. 349-350 Willem de Kooning’s greatest paintings capture the inherent paradox of his aesthetic practice, amply demonstrated by the bold Untitled from circa 1975-1977. De Kooning did not strive for resolution in his works; he sought instead to capture the variable quality of life, all in a rush of tactile paint that defied the limits of the canvas just as it shattered the boundary between figuration and abstraction.  In Untitled, the master painter’s slippery, limpid forms rendered in his soft, pliable pigment oscillate between objective art and abstract art, composed and agitated - all with the storied brilliance of his vibrant color palette and lush range of brushwork. In every decade of his long and illustrious career, de Kooning kept a firm grip on his medium as muse, and the glories of paint exhibited in Untitled are quintessential de Kooning, whose wrist, arm and body became one with the rhythms of his brush or palette knife. This spectacular assault of unrestrained expression encapsulates the full genius of de Kooning’s abstract vernacular. Painted in the years when de Kooning sensationally returned to painting after a long absence, this work belongs to an explosive outpouring of creativity that produced an illustrious series of large-scale, color-saturated canvases that rank among the finest achievements of his prodigious career. De Kooning’s independent spirit infuses Untitled and its sister paintings of the late 1970s with a heroic quality of individualism rather than conformism. He was at heart a pluralist who reveled in the multi-thematic, and like Pablo Picasso before him, de Kooning was rebellious and forged new paths, without eschewing the forms of expression of centuries past. Picasso was also a master at reinvention, and de Kooning proved just as adept at the contradictory role of master and rebel. After the 1956 death of Jackson Pollock, de Kooning was the undisputed leader of Action Painting and carried the Abstract Expressionist banner well into the next generation. Yet his eventual withdrawal from New York City to the environs of Long Island in the early 1960s was a reflection of his move away from the communal artistic existence that had fostered his breakthrough years of Woman I in 1950-52. De Kooning now sought reflective contemplation rather than the dissonant atmosphere of Manhattan, and found it in the tranquil and lush environment of his beloved Long Island, which resonated for him with memories of his native Holland. He had spent time in East Hampton as early as 1959, following the lead of Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky who had already escaped the city in favor of the countryside. By summer 1961, he had purchased a small house in Springs, East Hampton and soon found property nearby for a studio. In 1963 he settled there entirely, immersed in the sunlit coastal landscape that suffused his work with light and space. Untitled’s jubilant brushstrokes of yellow, pink, red and bright green are juxtaposed with quieter passages of white, salmon and flesh tones that proclaim de Kooning’s great gifts as a colorist, equal to Henri Matisse, the grand master of sublime color whose retrospective in New York in 1927 was a pivotal experience for de Kooning. His love for the spectacular light and its reflections on the water were a revelation and a reinvigoration to de Kooning, and while Untitled remains determinedly abstract, it nevertheless communicates an essence of contextual experience. As he related in 1972 to Harold Rosenberg, “I wanted to get in touch with nature. Not painting scenes from nature, but to get a feeling of that light that was very appealing to me, here particularly.” The colors were “indescribable tones, almost. I started working with them and insisted that they would give me the kind of light I wanted. One was lighting up the grass. That became that kind of green. One was lighting up the water. That became grey…I got into painting in the atmosphere I wanted to be in.” (Harold Rosenberg, “Interview with Willem de Kooning," Artnews 71, no. 5, September 1972, p. 57)  White is a predominant color in this corpus of late 1970s paintings, lending a sense of brilliant light and sharp-edged contrast to the saturated jewel tones in Untitled. The painting can be read as either landscape or seascape with the greys and white as either frothy sea spray or sand dune beaches with green sea grasses, punctuated by hints of sun-dappled flesh. The tactile process and properties of oil paint were a constant for de Kooning, and his sense of touch infused his great foray into sculpture that immediately preceded the paintings of the late 1970s. Picasso, who had worked in sculptural form as early as the first decade of the Twentieth Century, also championed the relationship between the two media when he famously stated that “sculpture is the best comment a painter can make on painting.” In like fashion, de Kooning’s physical reveling in pliable wet clay was transfiguring for him, leading to a renewed celebration of oil painting in works such as Untitled. De Kooning also greatly admired the younger artist, Francis Bacon, whom he had met for dinner in London in 1968 in the company of the critic David Sylvester. Both artists were greatly influenced by the vigorously textured brushwork of Chaim Soutine who remarkably infused paint with a sense of physical flesh. Bacon’s allegiance to the human form as his arena for creative exploration would also ring true to de Kooning’s sensual approach to oil, as eloquently acknowledged in his famous 1950 quote, “Flesh was the reason oil painting was invented.” It is therefore not surprising that Untitled exhibits de Kooning’s new found emphasis on the process of painting. While a heavily impastoed surface is a signature characteristic of de Kooning’s work of the 1950s, one of the revelations of the 1970s work, as in Untitled, is the sophistication and variety of paint handling. Focusing on the texture of his surface, de Kooning thinned his paint with water, adding kerosene, benzene or safflower oil as binding agents.  Using unorthodox methods of applying and removing paint with spatulas and knives, de Kooning defined Untitled through gesture, scraping and movement, ultimately creating a varied topography of undulating and shimmering color. De Kooning’s revitalization in painting, begun in 1975, was startling for a man who had first burst upon the art world stage in the 1940s. Famous for scrutinizing and reworking a single painting, he now surrounded himself with canvases, each inspiring the other and all informed with the same sense of improvisational urgency. Later describing this period, de Kooning recalled, “I couldn’t miss. It’s a nice feeling. It’s strange. It’s like a man at a gambling table [who] feels that he can’t lose.” (the artist cited in Judith Wolfe, “Glimpses of a Master,” in Exh. Cat., East Hampton, Guild Hall Museum, Willem de Kooning: Works from 1951-1981, 1981, p. 15) In the autumn of 1975 de Kooning premiered the first of these works with his dealer, Xavier Fourcade, followed by another exhibition in 1977, both greeted with laudatory reviews. As cited by John Elderfield in the catalogue for the 2011 retrospective of de Kooning’s work, David Sylvester acknowledged 1977 as the “annus mirabilis of de Kooning’s career,” in which “the paintings… with their massively congested, luminous color, their contrasts between flowing and broken forms, attain at their best a total painterliness in which marks and image coalesce completely and every inch of canvas quivers with teeming energy.” (David Sylvester, “Art: When Body, Mind and Paint Dissolve”, The Independent, February 15, 1995) Untitled is a truly exceptional embodiment of the emphatic mark-making and sheer force of painterly conviction that defines the majestic contribution to twentieth century art made by de Kooning over a remarkable span of decades.

  • 2014-05-13

Les femmes d’Alger (J)

Between December 13, 1954 and February 14, 1955, Picasso produced a series of paintings, drawings, etchings, aquatints, and lithographs depicting the exoticism and pleasures of a harem.   Among the most visually enticing of the opus is a group of fifteen oils, numbered with letters A through O, known as Les Femmes d'Alger.  Thirteen of these canvases present a group of three or four women -- one seated and one reclining, one smoking a narghile and one serving tea -- while the other two depictions focus on a single figure in isolation.  The present work, which is one of the most detailed depictions of the full quartet, is the tenth from the series and is often referred to as Les Femmes d'Alger (J).  Although the poses of the women are consistent throughout, each rendition in the series is fresh with various levels of abstraction and detail.  Not since his Demoiselles d'Avignon from 1907 did an ensemble of women so intensely occupy Picasso's attention and command his artistic devotion.   An immediate sensation when they were exhibited at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris,  Les Femmes d'Alger became the most important series of Picasso's post-war production. Picasso was not alone in his fascination with this subject.  The harems of North Africa and their connotations of sexual abandon were of overwhelming interest to many artists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.   The artist's specific inspiration for Les Femmes d'Alger came from Eugène Delacroix’s picture of the same title from the 1830s.  Delacroix had painted two famous oil versions of this subject, the first now in the collection of the Musée du Louvre (see fig. 1) and the second in the collection of the Musée Fabre in Montpelier (see fig. 2), and Picasso was intimately familiar with both of them.  His interest in these pictures originated  in the 1940s, but it was not until 1954 after the death of Henri Matisse that he even attempted his own interpretations of these works.  Matisse most famously explored themes of orientalism in the 1920s in Nice, transforming the exotic odalisque into one of the most recognizable emblems of eroticism in Modern art (see fig. 3).    Both he and Picasso had prided themselves on deriving much of their artistic knowledge from their study of the old masters.   After Matisse's death, Picasso, one of the few living artists of his generation, may have felt compelled to keep the art of these painters alive.  This picture, which is one of the most "Matissian" in its use of color and the suppleness of its forms, was completed on January 26, 1955. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s Picasso completed several series based on old master paintings, such as Velázquez’s Las Meninas and Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe.  His production inspired by Delacroix's Les Femmes d’Alger, however, was the debut of Picasso’s efforts at reinterpretation.  Stripping the women of their clothing and their modesty, Picasso's harem is replete with a type of eroticism that Delacroix himself would have never attempted.  Picasso also derived certain structural elements of this picture from other sources.  The placement of his figures specifically recalls Odalisque avec esclave (see fig. 4) by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, a painter whom Picasso idolized throughout his life.  So entrenched was he in quoting the Old Masters in this series that Picasso even imagined the following scenario, which he told his friend Hélène Parmelin: "I have a feeling that Delacroix, Giotto, Tintoretto, El Greco, and the rest, as well as all the modern painters, the good and the bad, the abstract and the non-abstract, are all standing behind me watching me at work" (quoted in Hélène Parmelin, Picasso Plain, New York, 1963, p. 77). Picasso’s main model and muse for his Les Femmes d’Alger series was his companion, Jacqueline, whom he would later marry in 1961.  Jacqueline was a demure, submissive person with dark features, and both her appearance and temperament were in contrast to Picasso’s former lover, the strong-willed Françoise Gilot.  In her memoirs, Gilot recalled accompanying Picasso to the Louvre on many occassions to see Delacroix's Les Femmes d'Alger, and how he often spoke about painting his own version one day.  When she asked him how he felt about Delacroix's work, he allegedly narrowed his eyes and said, "That bastard.  He's really good" (quoted in Francoise Gilot, Life with Picasso, New York, 1964, p. 203).  Picasso and Gilot ended their relationship around 1953, the same year that he met Jacqueline, and by 1955, he and Jacqueline were living together at Picasso’s villa, La Californie.  It was during these first months of his relationship with Jacqueline that he was inspired to begin working on this series. Michel Leiris has written about the development of this theme in Picasso’s art, and the influence that the women in his life had on it:  “In Paris, Picasso embarked on a series of variations of Delacroix’s ‘Women of Algers’ (the later Montpeller version as well as the more famous Louvre one), which he had long had in mind.  Picasso ‘had often spoken to me (Françoise Gilot wrote) of making his own version of the Women of Algers and had taken me to the Louvre on an average of once a month to study it.’  However, Françoise had not been the Delacroix type.  Jacqueline, on the contrary, epitomized it – and not just in physiognomy.  All three of Delacroix’s Women of Algers have the same squat, short-wasted torso that we find in the numerous paintings of Jacqueline…  All three Women of Algers likewise manifest Jacqueline’s submissiveness towards that absent but ever-present pasha, the painter.  And then, there is the African connection: Jacqueline had lived for many years as the wife of a colonial official in Upper Volta, now called Burkina.  As Picasso remarked, ‘Ouagadougou may not be Algiers, nonetheless Jacqueline has an African provenance” (Michel Leiris, “A Genius without a Pedestal,” Late Picasso, Paintings, Sculpture, Drawings, Prints 1953-1972 (exhibition catalogue), The Tate Gallery, London, 1988, p. 18). After he completed this series, Picasso asked his dealer, Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, what Delacroix would probably have thought of these new paintings.  Kahnweiler replied that Delacroix would most likely have understood them.  “Yes, I think so.”  Picasso said.  “I would say to him, ‘You had Rubens in mind and painted Delacroix.  I paint with you in mind and make something different again” (quoted in Susan Grace Galassi, Picasso’s Variations on the Masters: Confrontations with the Past, New York, 1996, p. 127). Picasso consigned the entire series of Les Femmes d'Alger to Kahnweiler at the Galerie Lousie Leiris and all 15 were then purchased by Victor and Sally Ganz on June 8, 1956 for $212,953.  The Ganzs kept five of them (C, H, K,  M, and O) and sold the other ten, including the present work and one currently in the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, for $138,000 (see fig. 5).  The present work was then acquired by two of Picasso's longtime dealers living in New York, Saidenberg Gallery and later, Paul Rosenberg & Co.,  who sold it to the Cook family in 1962. Comparables: Fig. 1, Eugène Delacroix, Les Femmes d’Alger, 1834, oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris Fig. 2, Eugène Delacroix, Les Femmes d’Alger, 1849, oil on canvas, Musée Fabre, Montpelier Fig. 3, Henri Matisse, Odalisque au culottes gris, 1926-27, oil on canvas, Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris Fig. 4, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque avec esclave, 1840, oil on canvas, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts Fig. 5, Pablo Picasso, Les Femmes d’Alger, January 16, 1955, oil on canvas, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Wilbur D. May Signed Picasso (upper left); dated 26.1.55 on the reverse

  • 2005-05-03

Nu couché vu de dos

Nu couché de dos is one of Matisse's most sumptuous oils of an odalisque, reclining in a position that best exploits the inviting curves of her flesh.   Painted while the artist was living in Nice and during what is considered his most accomplished period as a colorist, the composition presents a medley of Matisse's greatest achievements as a painter and draftsman.  The artist himself once made the following remarks with regard to the subject that arguably dominates his oeuvre: “The odalisques were the bounty of a happy nostalgia, a lovely, vivid dream, and the almost ecstatic, enchanted days and nights of the Moroccan climate.  I felt an irresistible need to express that ecstasy, that divine unconcern, in corresponding colored rhythms, rhythms of sunny and lavish figures and color” (Henri Matisse, quoted in Jack Flam (ed.), Matisse: A Retrospective, New York, 1988, p. 230). The figure of the odalisque was one that had long been celebrated in the history of art, most famously in the 19th century by painters such as Delacroix and Gêrome.  Matisse applied a highly personal approach to his interpretation of this subject, surrounding the figure with the rich textiles and personal affects of his studio. Writing about this series of Odalisques, Elizabeth Cowling commented: “In painting his make-believe harem scenes – nothing could be less authentic than the heteroclite mix of fabrics, costumes, furniture and bric-a-brac – Matisse sought to personalize and modernize the hackneyed Orientalist subjects which has first come into vogue during the Romantic period.  Delacroix’s sumptuous Women of Algiers was of paramount importance to this enterprise and in the sum total of the Nice odalisque paintings numerous echoes of it can be heard…” (Elizabeth Cowling, Matisse Picasso, Tate Modern, London, 2002, p. 221). This picture dates from the summer of 1927 and is one of a series of  compositions in which Matisse depicts his model against a decorative screen and next to a rococo table and metal samovar (see fig. 1).  In the present composition, the figure's curvaceous limbs and the bend of her spine echo the patterning of the drapery and the lines of the objects that surround her.   Her skin is inflected with multi-colored shadows and highlights, and her restless body, with a foot that appears to be shifting at the edge of the canvas, is framed by rich tones of green and magenta.     To enhance these sensations evoked by his model's warm flesh, Matisse turns up the temperature by including a hazy, bronze samovar, which we can imagine is filled and bubbling with hot tea.   The composition as a whole brilliantly recreates the intoxicating atmosphere of the harem which Matisse recreated within the confines of his studio.   Discussing these paintings, Jack Cowart has written that, "these striking paintings are the fullest realization of Matisse's thesis on pattern, decoration and the odalisque placed in his 'brewing tension.'  He surely enjoyed the deceptive game he played with this conflict between reality, appearance, and art, and dreaming and waking.  These paintings are fantasies in the best sense of the word, but for the sake of denying such an accusation, he said: 'I do odalisques in order to paint nudes.  But how does one paint nudes without their being artificial?  Because I know that odalisques exist, I was in Morocco.  I have seen some'" (Jack Coward, Henri Matisse, The Early Years in Nice 1916-1930 (exhibition catalogue), The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1986-87, p. 37). Matisse's model for the present picture was probably Henriette Darricarrère, who had worked with the artist throughout his Nice period.    Although Matisse considered her his primary source of inspiration, Henriette would stop modeling for him at the end of 1927 due to her failing health.  The present work, created the summer before her retirement, was probably one of the last major oils in which she posed for him in the nude.  In her recent biography of the artist, Hilary Spurling provided a wonderful description of what Matisse saw in his model, and Spurling's description can be aptly applied to the present composition:  "Henriette was a living sculpture.  The finely modelled planes of her torso and limbs caught the light....Her body articulated itself like a cat's into compact rounded volumes -- breast, belly, haunch, hip, calf, knee -- flowing smoothly into and out of one another from the calmer regular oval face to the balls and heels of her bare feet" (Hilary Spurling, Matisse The Master, A Life of Henri Matisse, The Conquest of Colour, 1909-1954, New York, 2005,  p. 270). In the present picture, Matisse's explicit concentration is on his model's back, an attribute that is often considered to be the most expressive part of the body (see fig. 2).  Throughout the history of western art, the best academic and avant-garde painters occasionally dedicated their compositions to depicting the elegant curves of back and relished in the seductive exercise of tracing the long line of the spine (see figs. 3 & 4).   But for Matisse, this part of the body presented the greatest formal challenges.  Matisse's first major exploration of the back was in the medium of sculpture, in a series of bas-reliefs that occupied him into the 1930s (see fig. 5).   Matisse himself once said, "Expression, for me, does not reside in passions glowing in a human face or manifested by violent movement.  The entire arrangement of my picture is expressive:  the place occupied by the figures, the empty spaces around them, the proportions, everything has its share" (Henri Matisse, Figure, Color, Space (exhibition catalogue), Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2006, p. 283). In a recent exhibition of the artist's work, Gottfried Boehm discussed Matisse's obsession with the back in his paintings and drawings.  Writing about a drawing in which Matisse depicts his model from behind (see fig. 6), Boehm offers the following observations on the artist's ability to focus the gaze of his audience and enchant them with the beauty of his images:  "Following the contours of the recumbent body, we soon become entangled in precisely those spatial conflicts that propel us beyond the perimeters of the [picture] itself and into a much larger, imaginary space.  Yet this redirecting of the beholder's gaze presupposes a refusal to fix the attention on any one spot.  Those who do try to do just this, for example by focusing on the patterns of the tapis africain or the floor tiles, are immediately swept along by the logic of the repeated pattern" (Gottfried Boehm, ibid., p. 287). Fig. 1, Henri Matisse Drawing the model Wilma Javor reclining on a sofa, Villa Alésia, Paris, 1939, Archives Matisse Fig. 2, Henri Matisse, Odalisque à la ceinture verte, 1926-27, oil on canvas, The Baltimore Museum of Art, The Cone Collection, Dr. Claribel Cone and Miss Etta Cone of Baltimore, Maryland Fig. 3, Diego Velázquez, La Venus del espejo, 1648, oil on canvas, The National Gallery, London Fig. 4, Paul Gauguin, Manao Tupapau (The Spirit of the Dead Watching), 1892, oil on burlap mounted on canvas, Albright Knox-Art Gallery, Buffalo Fig. 5, Henri Matisse, Nu de dos IV, 1930, bronze, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart Fig. 6, Henri Matisse, Nu allongé sur le ventre petit tapis africain, 1935, pen and India ink on paper, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris Signed Henri Matisse (lower right); titled Nu couché dos on the reverse

  • 2006-05-03

A magnificently carved lobed dingyao basin northern song dynasty

Sublimely potted with eight ethereal lobes rising from a flat base, the lobes delineated on the interior by sharp vertical lines of slip dividing the surface into eight panels, encircling the broad central medallion exquisitely carved with a full-bloom peony, the layers of the scalloped-edged petals accented with light combing, supported on a slender stalk issuing three serrated leaves with faintly incised veins, all framed by the deftly carved side panels, each with a slightly varying lotus sprig rising above a furled lotus pad with softly combed details, all placed to the left of centre, completely veiled in a silky ivory-coloured transparent glaze showcasing the white stoneware body, the plain sides of the exterior marked by the furrows of the corresponding lines on the interior, shaded in characteristic asymmetrical cream-coloured tear streaks running down the sides and pooling around the knife-pared bevelled edge encircling the flat base, the subtly concave base left plain save for a sweeping semi-circular graze giving the surface depth, the unglazed mouthrim crowned by a delicate copper-brown band elegantly contrasting against the white body Ding Ware at Its Peak Regina Krahl White porcelain, sparkling, glossy, smooth and impermeable, and thus appetizing and hygienic, is still the finest material available for tableware, catering to the most discriminating tastes even today. White Ding ware is and always was one of the most admired ceramic wares of China, much copied already at its time, standing out among the many wares of the Song (960-1279) as the best suited for food and medicine. True Ding ware is mostly of good quality and pleasing design, but this large bowl, which is unique, is outstanding in every respect, and represents a rare example of this ware at its very best: combining exquisite material with fine potting, a particularly successful shape with pleasing proportions, and a spirited, freely and distinctly incised design. Ding ware was always highly acclaimed at court. A tribute to the court of 2,000 pieces of Ding ware with metal-bound rim is recorded for the year AD 980. Many Ding vessels were discovered in the tomb of Emperor Taizong’s Empress, who died in AD 977 and was later reburied in AD 1000. A large number of Ding vessels from the Qing (1644-1911) court collection are still remaining in the Palace Museum, Beijing, others are in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, several of them bearing inscriptions by the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736-95). Many early Ding wares, particularly of the Tang (618-907) and Five Dynasties (907-960) periods, but also of the Song dynasty, are inscribed with the character guan (‘official’) or xin guan (‘new official’), and the excavations of the Quyang kiln sites in Hebei province have brought to light sherds of the Song and Jin (1115-1234) dynasties inscribed with the characters dong gong, ‘Eastern Palace’, and the names of two administrative units within the Court, Shangyaoju, the ‘Palace Medical Service’, and Shangshiju  the ‘Palace Food Service’ (for the former see, for example, Ding ci ya ji. Gugong Bowuyuan zhencang ji chutu Dingyao ciqi huicui/Selection of Ding Ware. The Palace Museum’s Collection and Archaeological Excavation, Palace Museum, Beijing, 2012, cat. nos. 3, 6-9, and 28; and Zhongguo gu ciyao daxi. Zhongguo Dingyao/Series of China’s Ancient Porcelain Kiln Sites. Ding Kiln of China, Beijing, 2012, cat. nos. 21, 42, 55, 68, 70, 77; for the latter see Tei yō. Yūga naru haku no sekai: Yōshi hakkutsu seika ten/Ding Ware. The World of White Elegance: Recent Archaeological Findings, Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, 2013-14, cat. nos. 45-6 and 32-3). Ding ware has been located to kiln sites at Jianci, Beizhen, Eastern and Western Yanchuan and Yebei villages near Baoding city, Quyang county, Hebei province, although examples of similarly high quality have also been excavated in Jingxing county, further southwest in Hebei. Given the overall excellence of this white ware, it is only natural that the court would have picked it as one of its ceramics. However, in the Song dynasty, kilns working for the court were neither strictly controlled by the court nor restricted to cater solely for imperial use. The majority of Ding wares, beautiful though they are, are mass-produced and come from a production line, where shapes and designs had been expertly worked out to be repeated in large quantities in nearly identical manner. These include the vast number of bowls and dishes with swiftly incised overall designs that tend to blend in with the slightly opaque glaze and to form a fairly indistinct overall enhancement of the vessel, rather than standing out as distinct decoration. Often, the decoration does not take the shape of the vessel into account at all, and can even be partly obliterated by sharp grooves from subsequent moulding. The present bowl belongs to a very different category, to an exceedingly small group of Ding wares, which are individually modelled and decorated, of well-designed form and with distinctly rendered, naturalistic flower decoration that represents an integral part of the vessel’s beauty. The exquisite, deeply eight-lobed shape of the present bowl, reminiscent more of a fruit than a flower, is as satisfactory to hold like a plump, cut-open melon. Yet the potting is most delicate. The grooves, indented on the outside, form a sharp ridge on the inside, reinforced by added lines of slip. An expert potter’s finishing touch was a quick movement of a knife to pare off the edge around the base, to make the base narrower and the shape thereby much more elegant. Bowls of similar eight-lobed shape are extremely rare and generally undecorated around the sides. Compare four such bowls in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, one larger (25 cm, fig. 1), and three of similar size or smaller (20.5 cm, 22.5 cm and 22.9 cm), but with a shallow foot, and plain except for an engraved lotus motif in the centre and raised ribs inside, all included in the museum’s current exhibition Dingzhou hua ci. Yuan cang Dingyao xi bai ci tezhan/Decorated Porcelains of Dingzhou. White Ding Wares from the Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, 2014, cat. nos. II-80, 81 and 82; another (21.6 cm) of that type from the Sir Percival David Collection now in the British Museum, London, is illustrated in Margaret Medley, Illustrated Catalogue of Ting and Allied Wares, Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London, 1980, pl. VI, no. 42; and a smaller one (18.4 cm) excavated from a Jin tomb of 1177 and now in the Capital Museum, Beijing, is published in Shoudu Bowuguan cang ci xuan [Selection of porcelains from the Capital Museum], Beijing, 1991, pl. 48. A much smaller (10.6 cm) lobed bowl, probably reduced in height and referred to as a washer, but otherwise very similar, with a single lotus spray in the centre and plain sides with raised ribs inside, preserved in the Palace Museum collection, Beijing, is inscribed on the base ju xiu (elegance assembled); see The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum: Porcelain of the Song Dynasty, Beijing, 1996, vol. 1, pl. 82. A larger lobed basin (26.5 cm) in the Seikadō Bunko Art Museum, Tokyo, classified as Important Cultural Property, is a rare example with floral incising both inside and outside, but of coarser type, see Yutaka Mino, Chūgoku no tōji [China’s ceramics], vol. 5: Hakuji [White wares], Tokyo, 1998, col. pl. 47. Other large bowls with this bevelled edge around the base tend to be round, with indentations only faintly hinted at on the outside, and thus completely different in appeal; compare two large Ding basins (26 cm and 24.5 cm) from the Qing court collection in the Palace Museum, Beijing, both with straight rim and incised with indistinct overall lotus scrolls, illustrated in The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum: Porcelain of the Song Dynasty, Beijing, 1996, vol. 1, pls. 47 and 55; another (24.5 cm) in the Osaka Museum of Oriental Ceramics, classified as Important Cultural Property, is published in Mino, op. cit., col. pl. 46. A tree peony design, naturalistically represented with its serrated leaf, is extremely rare. A similar peony spray appears in the centre of two small dishes or brushwashers in the National Palace Museum, both of which are engraved on the base with an inscription by the Qianlong Emperor; see the exhibition catalogue De jia qu. Qianlong Huangdi de taoci pinwei/Obtaining Refined Enjoyment: The Qianlong Emperor’s Taste in Ceramics, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 2012, cat. nos. 5 and 6 (fig. 2); a dish with this design in the Nelson-Atkins Art Museum, Kansas City, is published in Zhongguo gu ciyao daxi, op. cit., p. 279, fig. 27. Lotus motifs are very common on Ding ware, but tend to be so sketchily rendered that they are sometimes interpreted as day-lily motifs, even though they are often combined with the arrow-head water plant. The lotus is rarely seen in the naturalistically manner as depicted here, with its leaf variously curled and turned in different directions. This motif appears similarly on only a few other fine Ding pieces, such as a six-lobed food bowl in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, included in the Museum’s current exhibition Dingzhou hua ci, op. cit., cat. no. II-39 (fig. 3); and a fragment of a similar Song bowl, that forms part of the Gugong’s vast sherd collection, which includes Ding sherds recovered from the kiln sites at Jiancicun and Yanchuancun in Quyang county, Hebei; see Gugong Bowuguan cang Zhongguo gudai yaozhi biaoben, vol. 2: Hebei juan  [Specimens from China’s ancient kilns preserved in the Palace Museum, vol. 2: Hebei volume], Beijing, 2006, pl. 169 top. On a lobed dish from the Qing court collection in the Palace Museum, Beijing, similar lotus sprays alternate with ducks, see Ding ci ya ji, op. cit., cat. no. 82, or The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum: Porcelain of the Song Dynasty, Beijing, 1996, vol. 1, pl. 61; an identical dish from the Kempe collection was included in the exhibition Chinese Gold, Silver and Porcelain The Kempe Collection, Asia House Gallery, New York, 1971, cat. no. 110, and sold in our London rooms, 14th May 2008, lot 258. The well-known record in a Song text that the court did not appreciate Ding wares because of their unglazed rims and ordered wares from the Ru kilns instead, has been discussed by Ts’ai Mei-fen of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, at a symposium organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, in 1996. She argued that unglazed rims were not the consequence of the kilns’ practice of firing bowls upside down, but that “the reason for the unglazed rim was that the metal-banded rim was the popular taste of the time”, approved even at court, and that “the practice of covering edges … began well before the Ting [Ding] kiln started firing its ware upside down. The practice was not introduced to cover up the unglazed rim, but, on the contrary, the unglazed rim was possibly instituted because of the popular practices of decorating edges.” She states that the Wensiyuan (Crafts Institute), a workshop for the production of jewellery under the Directorate for Imperial Manufactories, as well as the Houyuan Zaozuosuo (Palace Workshop of the Rear Garden), another workshop that produced articles for use in the inner court, both included a Lengzuo workshop, for the ‘decoration of edges’. Ts’ai suggests therefore that the quote does not refer to imperial taste but to the fact that metal-bound vessels were not considered suitable for certain imperial ritual ceremonies. See Ts’ai Mei-fen, ‘A Discussion of Ting Ware with Unglazed Rims and Related Twelfth-Century Official Porcelain’, Arts of the Sung and Yüan, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1996, pp. 109-31. On the present bowl the tactile ivory-tinged glaze, with its characteristic ‘tears’ of a deeper tone, preserves its attractive original lustre. Pieces of comparable quality are outstandingly rare and hardly left in private collections. The bowl was in the fabled collection of Alfred and Ivy Clark already in 1949, before Alfred Clark’s death, and featured in many important exhibitions, but has not been publicly shown since 1971, when it was last sold at Sotheby’s. Alfred (1873-1950, fig. 4) and Mrs. Ivy Clark (1890 or 91-1976), both major supporters of the London Oriental Ceramic Society and its exhibitions, started collecting in the 1920s. Edgar Bluett devoted two articles in the art magazine Apollo to their collection already in 1933 and 1934. Although they donated some of their pieces to the British Museum, the majority was sold over the years in different sales at Sotheby’s. Lady David, when asked whose collection Sir Percival David ranked highest, thought the collection of the Clarks would have been most to his taste (Orientations, vol. 23, no. 4, 1992). The Clark’s outstanding collection of Song ceramics, of which they lent twenty-eight pieces to the important Oriental Ceramic Society exhibition The Arts of the Sung Dynasty in London, 1960, also included the magnificent lobed Ru guanyao brush washer sold in these rooms, 4th April 2012, lot 101 and still holding the world record price for Song ceramics.

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2014-04-08

An Extraordinary Ruby and Diamond Ring

AN EXTRAORDINARY RUBY AND DIAMOND RING Set with a cushion-shaped ruby, weighing approximately 15.04 carats, within a cushion-shaped diamond surround, to the pavé-set circular-cut diamond three quarter-hoop, mounted in gold, ring size 5½ Accompanied by premium report no. 80282 dated 12 February 2013 from the SSEF Swiss Gemmological Institute stating that the ruby is of Burma (Myanmar) origin, with no indications of heating and the colour of this ruby may also be called 'pigeon blood red' in the trade; also accompanied by an appendix stating that the ruby possesses extraordinary characteristics and merits special mention and appreciation. The ruby shows an impressive size and weigh, combined with a vivid red colour and an attractive cutting style. The inclusions found by microscopic inspection represent the hallmarks of classical ruby mines in the Mogok valley in Burma (Myanmar), well known for its wealth in gems since historic times. Its vivid and saturated red colour, poetically referred to as 'pigeon blood red', is due to a combination of well-balanced trace elements in this stone, characteristic for the finest rubies from Mogok. A natural ruby from Burma of this size and quality is very rare and thus can be considered an exceptional treasure Report no. 13020031 dated 12 February 2013 from the Gübelin GemLab stating that the ruby is of Burma (Myanmar) origin, with no indications of heating and this colour variety may also be called “pigeon’s blood red” in the trade; also accompanied by an appendix stating that the ruby possesses a combination of outstanding characteristics. It displays a homogeneous and richly saturated colour, which typifies the finest of these gems. The depth of colour, combined with a high clarity and brilliance, all contribute to the beauty of the gem. Such a combination of characteristics is very rare in Burmese rubies of this size US$10,000,000-15,000,000

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2015-12-01


A FINE AND EXQUISITE FAMILLE-ROSE FLORAL MEDALLION BOTTLE VASE ENAMELLED IN THE PALACE WORKSHOPS BLUE ENAMEL MARK AND PERIOD OF QIANLONG, THIS IS A PREMIUM LOT. CLIENTS WHO WISH TO BID ON PREMIUM LOTS ARE REQUESTED TO COMPLETE THE PREMIUM LOT PRE-REGISTRATION 3 WORKING DAYS PRIOR TO THE SALE. BIDnow ONLINE BIDDING SERVICE IS NOT AVALIABLE. Superbly potted, the slightly compressed spherical body sweeping up to a tall slender neck with a cupped mouth, in a tour-de-force of painting the fine white body covered in a clear glaze and decorated with four round white medallions each containing finely enamelled flowers, one with yellow day lilies growing beside pink and red poppies with small blue daisies on the side, the second with pink and red roses blooming from a bush with bamboo and asters, the third with a nandina bush laden with ripe red berries arching over a stand of narcissus with lingzhi fungus to the side, the final medallion with rich yellow hollyhock growing beside red and yellowish green leafy stems, all reserved on the blue ground decorated with pink and yellow bats swooping amidst multi-coloured clouds, between a border of lappets picked out in rose-pink enclosed by a narrow yellow border and two shades of green radiating from the foot and a puce-ground border painted with archaistic green and pink dragons on the shoulder, the raised collar picked out in orange, the splayed foot encircled by a pale blue ground border painted with a feathery pink scroll above a thin yellow line, all below a tall neck decorated with stylised multi-coloured flowers borne on scrolling leafy stems against a rich yellow ground, all between two borders of ruyi heads, one predominantly blue and the other pink, the cupped mouth with a border of small petals on the underside, the base inscribed with a blue enamel mark Qianlong nianzhi within a double square, the mate offered in the proceeding lot 18.4 cm., 7 1/4 in.

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2010-10-06

Number 12, 1950

"I approach painting in the same sense as one approaches drawing; that is, it's direct.'' Jackson Pollock interviewed by William Wright, Summer 1950, cited in Clifford Ross, ed., Abstract Expressionism: Creators and Critics, New York, 1990, p. 144 Surging with the inimitable dynamism that has come to define Jackson Pollock’s prodigious legacy, Number 12, 1950, encapsulates the pure essence of his art. Executed in 1950, at the chronological apex of the artist’s indelibly significant career, Number 12 belongs to an elite cycle of fifteen paintings on Masonite that Pollock created in that year. He obtained the sheets of Masonite, all measuring twenty-two inches square, from his brother Sanford McCoy. Inspired by the textured surface of his new material, and how it interacted with his impassioned splatters differently from the smooth paper ground that he had previously used for works of this scale, Pollock feverishly created this series of intimately scaled masterworks. Other examples from this illustrious group today reside in the world’s most prominent museum collections, such as the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Number 15); the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (Number 18); the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro (Number 16); and the Philadelphia Museum of Art (Number 22). Focused to a point of sensational intensity, Number 12 epitomizes the chromatic vibrancy, heroic drama, and thrilling dynamism of an artist at the height of his groundbreaking prowess. The past quarter century has witnessed only an exclusive handful of Pollock’s drip paintings offered at auction, marking the occasion of this painting’s appearance for sale as a spectacularly rare and historic event that befits its status as an exquisite vestige of one of Abstract Expressionism’s most profound and momentous legacies. 1950 was a hugely significant and transformative year in Jackson Pollock’s career. In January, on the day before his thirty-eighth birthday, the Museum of Modern Art in New York acquired the artist’s 1948 canvas Number 1A. In June, he was chosen by Alfred H. Barr, Jr. and Alfred Frankfurter as one of six artists to participate in an exhibition of young American painters in the U.S. Pavilion at the XXV Venice Biennale. In July, the photographer Hans Namuth asked Pollock if he could photograph him while he painted, thereby initiating a series of studio visits that resulted in the most resounding and iconic images of the artist at work on his eponymous drip paintings. And, from November to December, Pollock showed the present work alongside a selection of other 1950 masterpieces such as Lavender Mist: Number 1 (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.); One: Number 31 (Museum of Modern Art, New York); and Autumn Rhythm: Number 30 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) in his fourth solo exhibition at Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, which was subsequently designated as one of the three best shows of 1950 by ARTnews. Not publically shown for nearly sixty years, Number 12 appears today as a singular memento of an historic moment when the eyes of the world looked to New York for the most revolutionary creative innovations and the forging of contemporary Art History. In this work the technically diverse layers of material accretion, accumulations of brilliant red, yellow, green, and black tempered by the shimmering aluminum paint that courses through the dense tempest of drips, deliver an all-over effect that is at once aesthetically arresting and infinitely subtle. Our sustained experience of the painting is rewarded with a sublime catharsis, as its compositional complexity continually fluctuates between the shadows of rhythmic patterns and the disorganized chaos of action painting unrestrained. Number 12 exemplifies the innovation that most defines Pollock’s achievement as embodied in the phrase “drawing into painting,” coined by William Rubin in 1967 to describe the liberation of line from figuration into abstraction. Distinctions between artistic practices did not exist for Pollock whose radical technique married paint to the freedom of draftsmanship in order to express his innermost artistic impulse. Pollock's pursuit was immediacy and the fluid union of material and creativity as one. In his mature oeuvre, neither brush nor any other tool applied paint to his support surface; instead, he placed his chosen ground on a flat surface and with his quick wrist and flowing movement dripped, splattered, and pooled paint from the can, creating complex, all-over patterns. Here, Pollock’s intensely-hued pools unite with the textured Masonite ground to imbue the work with an ever-heightened dimension of material vivacity. While the enthralling surface encourages the eye to examine its detail, the density of overlapping pigments creates a dynamism that presses outward toward the Masonite edge. However, although often considered an essentially graphic artist preoccupied with the primacy of line, the present work is also a major demonstration of Pollock’s mastery of color. Indeed, the combination of the harmony of pure color and the tensile strength of linear design positions this painting in the highest order of Pollock’s oeuvre. The skeins of material interweave to build the structure of a picture that seems almost to possess an inner life and ultimately a sense of wholeness emerges from the combination of physical abandon and aesthetic control. Enlisting a technique of chance that would subsequently influence generations of the Twentieth Century’s most prominent artists, from Francis Bacon’s famous throwing of paint, to Gerhard Richter’s entire dependence on the arbitrary squeegee spatula for his abstract paintings, Pollock faced an unprecedented dilemma in deciding the moment at which a picture arrived at its crescendo of resolution. In this respect Number 12 is yet again a definitive example of Pollock’s genius. Kirk Varnedoe has described how Pollock determined the success of a work or its arrival at its final form: "Like many other modern artists before and since, he was drawn to explore edge conditions, extreme boundaries where coherence might give onto its opposite, and where fullness of meaning and total emptiness rubbed against each other." (Exh. Cat., New York, Museum of Modern Art, Jackson Pollock, 1998, p. 51) Number 12 exists for perpetuity in precisely such an “edge condition”: harboring a fundamental order yet poised on the very precipice of utter dissolution. Pollock proved that if art was defined by the artist, then the individual's subconscious and instincts directly influenced the technique, composition, and content of the art. He revolutionized easel painting by asserting that material and medium could fundamentally replace subject matter in painting. It is true that there were some distant precursors, such as the innovative use of collage and found objects in the works of Picasso, Braque, and Duchamp, as well as the automatism of the Surrealists and the conceptual subversions of Marcel Duchamp. Yet Pollock demonstrated unequivocally that the material was the means by which he expressed his message while working in the most traditional of mediums, oil paint.  As Varnedoe observed, " 'How?' would take over from 'What?' as the prime point of genesis. Changing his self-awareness from a search for buried icons or totems to a reliance on more pragmatic instincts about how it felt best to work, Pollock would unblock the way to a fundamentally personal, original art. And a great deal more." (Ibid., p. 48) Pollock's innovations were elemental and instinctive, born of many years of struggling with the tension between figure and ground, abstraction and representation, content and technique. Beginning in the winter of 1946-47 when Pollock first placed his canvases on the floor of his Long Island barn, he pushed the boundaries of painting beyond his earlier Surrealist and Expressionist work. Standing above the painting surface, Pollock worked from all four sides to drip, pool, and fling pigment from sticks, brushes, and other implements. From 1947 to 1951, Pollock's brush seldom touched his paintings, but his dexterity and total physicality orchestrated the fluidity, density, speed, and rhythm of his medium into an all-over composition of cohesive expressiveness. This golden period witnessed the genesis of a sublime body of work, including the present painting. As one of the most iconic figures of twentieth-century Art History, Jackson Pollock’s long shadow cast a protean myth that has almost obscured his monumental achievement in creating an independent aesthetic that revolutionized artistic practice during and after his lifetime. Yet a few works of genius such as Number 12 transport us directly to the crucible of that revolutionary enterprise, and stand as enduring testament to this master’s sheer brilliance. Signed and dated 50

  • 2015-05-12

Ferrari 250 GT SWB California Spider - 1961

Ferrari 250 GT SWB California Spider - 1961 Carte grise française Châssis n° 2935GT Moteur n° 2935 Numéro interne n° 610 E Boîte de vitesses n° 8.61 Pont n° 383F - Certainement le plus beau cabriolet de la deuxième moitié du XXème siècle - Une des 37 California Spider SWB phares carénés construite - Entièrement originale, jamais restaurée - Histoire unique et fabuleuse - Ayant appartenu à l'une des plus grandes stars du cinéma, Alain Delon - Matching numbers - La California du Salon de Paris 1961 - Même propriétaire depuis 1971 Avec la 250, le destin de Ferrari va changer. De constructeur marginal, il va prendre une dimension industrielle et acquérir l'aura mondiale qu'on lui connaît aujourd'hui. Autour du fameux V12 3 litres, dont les qualités de puissance et de souplesse ne sont plus à démontrer, naissent deux familles d'automobiles : des Ferrari exclusivement destinées à la piste, et d'autres plutôt réservées à un usage routier et offrant donc un confort et un équipement dont étaient jusque-là dépourvues les voitures de la marque. La branche course donnera naissance à des légendes sur roues comme les Testa Rossa, berlinettes Tour de France, 250 GTO ou 250 LM alors que la famille des voitures de route produira de merveilleux coupés ou cabriolets que se disputeront stars, sportifs de haut niveau et gros industriels. Mais ce qui caractérise aussi le constructeur de Maranello, ce sont les "passerelles" constantes qui relient les deux familles, et qui fait que les voitures de route ne sont jamais très loin de la piste... Le spider 250 GT California est le fruit de ce mariage idéal. En effet, alors que le cabriolet 250 GT Pinin Farina est directement dérivé du coupé grand tourisme, le spider California s'appuie sur les berlinettes destinées à la compétition. A tel point d'ailleurs que, sur un dessin magistral de Pinin Farina, il est carrossé chez Scaglietti, à qui Ferrari confie la réalisation de ses voitures de compétition. Le spider reprend le même châssis de 2,60 m d'empattement que la berlinette Tour de France, son moteur offre des caractéristiques comparables et sa forme adopte le décrochement d'aile arrière caractéristique de la version fermée. Comme il est moins systématiquement orienté compétition, il accuse sur la balance quelques dizaines de kilos de plus que son homologue, mais reste malgré tout plus léger que le cabriolet. D'ailleurs, certains modèles plus spécialement préparés pour les joies du chronomètre vont se distinguer sur circuits : ainsi, Ginther et Hively terminent premiers de la catégorie Grand Tourisme et neuvièmes au classement général des 12 Heures de Sebring 1959 et Grossman et Tavano décrochent la cinquième place aux 24 Heures du Mans de la même année, au volant d'un spider engagé par l'écurie du NART de l'enthousiaste Luigi Chinetti. Ledit Chinetti n'est d'ailleurs certainement pas étranger à l'appellation "California" du spider 250 GT : d'origine milanaise, ami intime d'Enzo Ferrari, il participe largement et efficacement à la diffusion de Ferrari en Amérique du Nord, qui devient pour le constructeur italien un marché avec lequel le modèle va connaître une évolution parallèle à celle des versions compétition et un grand succès commercial auprès des plus exigeants amateurs fortunés. En tout, quarante sept exemplaires sont vendus en moins de deux ans dont curieusement 6 seulement en Californie. En réalité deux California de plus sont sorties des ateliers de Scaglietti à la même époque, un coupé " Boano " et un cabriolet Pinin Farina, rhabillés à la suite d'accidents. Et il convient bien sûr de ne pas oublier les 52 exemplaires sur châssis court qui ont pris la suite entre 1960 et 1962. Modèle exclusif et performant, le spider California garde une place à part dans la production Ferrari, car il réalise une synthèse inégalé entre les qualités des modèles de piste et ceux de route, les deux voies sur lesquelles Ferrari a appuyé son succès planétaire. De plus les carrosseries cabriolet de la marque sont particulièrement rares dans la production Ferrari, ce qui explique son succès grandissant au fil des décennies faisant aujourd'hui de la California la plus chère des Ferrari routières. Sur les 52 exemplaires produits sur châssis court, seuls 37 California sont sorties avec les phares carénées. Cette particularité est la plus recherchée aujourd'hui et ce, grâce à l'élégance supérieure qu'elle revêt. Lorsqu'il se rend au Salon de l'Auto, à Paris en 1961, Gérard Blain est déjà un acteur de cinéma confirmé. Á 31 ans, il a déjà une vingtaine de films à son actif et une passion pour les cabriolets Ferrari. Il vient de faire reprendre sa Ferrari 250 GT Série 1 (la voiture du Salon de Paris 1957) par la Franco-Britannic Autos, l'importateur Ferrari, et s'intéresse de très près au magnifique Spider 250 GT California châssis court, de couleur bleu foncé, hard-top bleu foncé, intérieur simili noir, exposé sur le stand de ce même importateur Ferrari. Ce châssis 2935GT, terminé le 27 septembre 1961, a été envoyé immédiatement chez l'importateur parisien pour le Salon qui a lieu du 5 au 15 octobre 1961. La première semaine du Salon sont exposées sur le stand de la Franco-Britannic une 250 GT Berlinette Lusso (#2917), une 250 GTE et une 250 cabriolet série II. La Ferrari 250 berlinette châssis court sera vendue dès le début du Salon et sera remplacée en deuxième semaine par cette Ferrari 250 California #2935. Après son achat par Gérard Blain, elle est immatriculée le 21 octobre 1961 à son nom et son adresse (9 rue de Siam, Paris XVIe arrondissement), sous le numéro 88 LR 75, 6 jours donc après la fermeture du Salon. Alain Delon est de la même génération que Gérard Blain, et les voitures de sport font évidemment partie de son environnement de star. Séduit par la belle Ferrari de son ami, il lui achète et on la retrouve immatriculée 4452 MC, à Monaco donc. Une copie du titre de circulation monégasque au nom de l'acteur nous montre qu'il l'a immatriculée précisément le 23 mai 1963 en Principauté. Il est incroyable de découvrir que Marc Bouvot, fils du troisième propriétaire, a retrouvé les plaques originales 4452 MC que son père avait conservé après l'achat auprès d'Alain Delon. A cette époque, après avoir été consacré par Plein Soleil et Rocco et ses frères, Alain Delon connaît une fantastique accélération de sa carrière d'acteur. Beau, séduisant, talentueux, il fait tourner les têtes et tomber les cœurs, et les producteurs profitent de cette fabuleuse image pour le faire tourner sans discontinuer. En 1963, il est avec Jane Fonda dans Les Félins, où René Clément l'entraîne dans une machiavélique machination. L'année suivante, on le retrouve avec Shirley MacLaine dans La Rolls Royce jaune où il séduit une riche et belle marquise. La Ferrari partage ces grands moments avec le célébrissime acteur et des photos le montrent au volant du Spider 2935GT, en compagnie des deux actrices, elles aussi des stars que le monde admire. En 1964, Alain Delon et sa femme Nathalie partent en voyage en Californie. L'acteur fait envoyer la voiture à destination afin d'en profiter dans les rues de Los Angeles. C'est certainement à ce moment-là que les répétiteurs de clignotants sur les ailes avant ont été changés afin de correspondre aux normes américaines. Nous avons retrouvé sous le siège passager les répétiteurs ronds d'origine dans leur boîte ! Sur l'attestation d'assurance de l'époque, un document original fourni par le fils du troisième propriétaire, on remarque une adresse inscrite à la main indiquant une adresse à Beverly Hills. Sans doute l'acteur avait-il noté cette indication afin de la communiquer à son assureur. Sur une photo prise aux États-Unis en 1964, la Ferrari California est surprise devant une station d'essence, avec Nathalie Delon, pendant que son mari vérifie la pression des pneus et, sur un autre cliché, on aperçoit le couple à Los Angeles, en promenade à bord de sa voiture. En juillet 1965, Alain Delon se sépare de la Ferrari California et en confie la vente à Michel Maria Urman Automobiles, 40 bis rue Guersant, Paris XVIIe, spécialiste de voitures de prestige. Elle est achetée le 2 août 1965 pour la somme de 30 000 francs par Paul Bouvot, alors que la voiture n'affiche que 37 000 km. Paul Bouvot dirige à cette époque le Centre de Style des Automobiles Peugeot, et son œil de styliste perçoit le caractère exceptionnel de la ligne de la California. Il confiera un jour à son fils : "Cette Ferrari est un chef d'œuvre ; elle est belle quel que soit l'angle sous lequel on la regarde, avec ou sans ses attributs". Il évoque bien sûr les pare-chocs, qui sont parfois démontés de la voiture comme le montrent des photos que nous a montrées son fils Marc Bouvot. Paul Bouvot immatricule la Ferrari le 18 août 1965, sous le numéro 6101 RU 75. Pendant un an, il va parcourir quelque 25 000 km, ne se gênant guère pour se rendre au volant au Centre de Style Peugeot, ce qui fera grincer des dents certains dirigeants qui auraient préféré le voir arriver dans une plus classique Peugeot. Mais Paul Bouvot est un Ferrariste passionné. Ainsi, quand il vend le Spider California en mai 1966 à son quatrième propriétaire, M. Robert Cooper (un Canadien vivant à Paris), c'est pour acheter quelques mois plus tard une autre Ferrari 250GT California châssis court que son ami Jess Pourret lui propose. Mais c'est une autre histoire... Robert Cooper gardera la voiture six mois, avant de la céder fin 1966 à un amateur de voitures de sport parisien qui en profitera jusqu'en octobre 1967. L'avant-dernier propriétaire de 2935GT est un médecin parisien qui la gardera quatre ans jusqu'à son acquisition en novembre 1971 par Jacques Baillon. 2935GT rentre alors dans une collection prestigieuse commencée dans les années 1950 par Roger Baillon, son père. Jacques Baillon roulera très peu avec la Ferrari qui, comme la plupart de ses voitures, se retrouvera vite remisée à l'abri du temps et des intempéries. Marc Bouvot, dont le père a acheté la Ferrari à Alain Delon en 1965, nous a permis de consulter ses documents originaux exceptionnels (plaques minéralogiques originales Monaco, certificats originaux d'assurance au nom d'Alain Delon, copie du titre monégasque, pochette originale en cuir). C'est également grâce à l'ouvrage de référence sur le Salon de Paris intitulé "Les Ferrari au Salon de Paris-1948 /1988" de Dominique Pascal, et avec la collaboration de Jess Pourret et Marc Rabineau, que nous avons pu constituer un dossier historique très complet. L'avis des spécialistes " Ce graal automobile se trouve aujourd'hui telle que nous l'avons découvert, le 30 septembre dernier, alors que nous ouvrions la porte du garage de la propriété. Protégée de toute humidité, elle nous fait front, recouverte d'un léger voile de poussière et de quelques piles de magazines et autres journaux. Elle a mieux résisté au poids des années qu'au poids du papier…son coffre s'en est incliné. Mais il ne s'agissait surtout pas d'y toucher tant cette particularité donne à la Belle toute son originalité, son exclusivité et son histoire unique. Chaque grain de poussière reste celui de tant d'années de stockage à l'abri des intempéries. Protégée de l'humidité, sa robe est saine, tout autant que son châssis. Les jours de portes, capot et coffre sont droits et d'origine. Lorsque vous fermez les portes, on perçoit ce bruit caractéristique d'une automobile préservée. Ses vitres latérales sont en plexiglas (serait-ce d'origine ?). Son intérieur est celui d'origine, avec sa sellerie noire en simili cuir. L'acquéreur qui se glissera derrière son volant prendra possession de la clef pour ouvrir la boîte à gants. Il y découvrira la paire de gants en cuir havane asséchée par le temps, déposé sur des vignettes automobiles des années 71 à 75, jamais collées sur le pare-brise. Lorsqu'il baissera le dossier passager, il glissera sa main dans le vide-poche pour y découvrir le manuel d'origine ainsi que les bons d'essence d'époque. Dans le vide-poches du dossier du fauteuil conducteur, il découvrira le double de clefs. En ouvrant le coffre, il découvrira deux circuits pour enfants, certainement cachés là par Jacques Baillon en vue de les offrir à ses enfants à Noël…ses enfants ne les reçurent jamais…oubliés au fond du coffre… A côté, un nécessaire de pharmacie d'époque encore dans son emballage plastique ainsi que plusieurs exemplaires du livre de Paul Frère "La conduire en compétition". La baie moteur elle semble ne jamais avoir bougée…jamais démontée, intacte avec ses deux bobines originales… rarissimes. Cette automobile est une œuvre d'art, la dernière California châssis court phares carénés dans un état d'origine intouchée depuis 45 années, probablement jamais démontée. Elle est le graal des Spiders Grand Tourisme, la référence ultime de l'histoire de l'Automobile et LE plus beau cabriolet de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. " Une procédure d'enregistrement des enchérisseurs particulière s'applique à ce lot. Si vous souhaitez enchérir sur ce lot, merci de vous manifester auprès du département et de vous enregistrer au moins 48 heures avant la vente. French title Chassis n° 2935GT Engine n° 2935 Internal number: 610 E Gear box n° 8.61 Rear axle n° 383F - Certainly the most beautiful cabriolet of the second half of the 20th century - One of 37 California Spider SWBs with covered headlights - Completely original, never restored - Unique, fabulous history - Belonged to one of the most famous film stars, Alain Delon - Matching numbers - The 1961 Paris Motor Show California, - Same owner since 1971 Ferrari's destiny was changed by the 250. Starting as a small-scale constructor, it took on an industrial dimension and gained the international reputation that it enjoys today. Centred on the famous V12 3-litre engine, which had nothing further to prove, two Ferrari families were born : one destined exclusively for the track and the other, offering a level of comfort and equipment missing until that point, for the road. The racing line gave birth to such legendary cars as the Testa Rossa, Tour de France berlinetta, 250 GTO and the 250 LM. Meanwhile stars, tycoons and amateur enthusiasts fought over the road-going line which produced splendid coupés and cabriolets. A constant characteristic of Maranello was the strong link between these two groups, which meant that the road-going cars were never far from the race track...The 250 GT California Spider is the child of this perfect marriage. Indeed, while the 250 GT cabriolet by Pinin Farina is derived from the GT coupé, the California Spider is drawn from the competition berlinettas. So much so that the brilliant design by Pinin Farina was bodied by Scaglietti who built the competition cars for Ferrari. The Spider used the same chassis with 2.6m wheelbase as the Tour de France, had a comparable engine and featured the same rear wing styling as the closed version. Being geared less towards racing, it was a little heavier than its counterpart, but still lighter than the cabriolet. Also, there were certain models, specially prepared with a stopwatch in mind, that distinguished themselves on the circuit : Ginther and Hively finished first in the GT category and ninth overall in the 1959 Sebring 12 Hour race, and Grossman and Tavano took fifth place in the Le Mans 24 Hour race the same year, at the wheel of a spider from the NART team belonging to enthusiast Luigi Chinetti. The aforementioned Chinetti was involved in the " California " title of the 250 GT Spider: originally from Milan and a close friend of Enzo Ferrari, he was largely responsible for the widespread and efficient distribution of Ferrari throughout North America. This became an important market for the model that evolved alongside the competition versions, and enjoyed great commercial success with demanding wealthy amateur drivers. In all, forty-seven examples were sold in under two years, with surprisingly just six going to California. Two further Californias left the Scaglietti workshop at that time, a " Boano " coupé and a Pinin Farina cabriolet, both rebodied after accidents. And one must not forget the 52 short-chassis examples which followed on between 1960 and 1962. An exclusive and high-performance model, the California Spider holds a special place in the history of Ferrari, as it embodies an unrivalled fusion of qualities for road and track, the two paths on which Ferrari built its global success. The open versions of this marque are particularly rare, which explains the growing success across the decades of the California, the most expensive road-going Ferrari today. Of the 52 short wheelbase examples of the California produced, just 37 had covered headlights. This feature is the most highly sought after today, for its superior elegance. When he arrived at the Paris Motor Show in 1961, Gérard Blain was already an established film actor. He was 31, with some twenty films to his name and a passion for Ferrari convertibles. He had just returned his Ferrari 250 GT Series 1 (the 1957 Paris Motor Show car) to the Ferrari importer Franco-Britannic Autos, and was interested in the magnificent 250 GT California SWB Spider, in dark blue with dark blue hard-top and black imitation leather interior, displayed on the same Ferrari importer's stand. This particular chassis 2935GT, completed on 27 September 1961, had been sent straight to the Parisian importer to be shown at the Motor Show on 5 to 15 October 1961. During the first week of the show, a 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso (#2917), a 250 GTE and a 250 cabriolet series II were on show on the Franco-Britannic stand. The Ferrari 250 SWB berlinetta was sold at the start of the show and was replaced in the second week by this Ferrari 250 California #2935. The Ferrari was bought by Gérard Blain and registered on 21 October 1961 in his name and address (9 rue de Siam, Paris XVIe arrondissement), with the number 88 LR 75, just six days after the Motor Show had closed. Alain Delon was from the same generation as Gérard Blain, and sports cars were clearly part of his celebrity scene. Liking the look of his friend's stunning Ferrari, he bought it, and had it registered in Monaco, 4452 MC. A copy of the Monégasque registration papers in the actor's name reveals that he registered it on 23 May 1963 in the Principality. Amazingly, Marc Bouvot, the son of the third owner, found the original plates 4452 MC that his father kept after buying the car from Alain Delon. At this period, having become established through roles in Plein Soleil et Rocco et ses frères, Alain Delon's acting career suddenly took off. Handsome, charming and talented, he caused heads to turn and hearts to break. Producers profited from this fabulous image by keeping him busy in one film after another. In 1963, he starred with Jane Fonda in Les Félins (Joy House), in which René Clément weaved him into a Machiavellian plot. The following year, he appeared with Shirley MacLaine in La Rolls Royce jaune (The Yellow Rolls-Royce), in which he seduced a rich and beautiful marquise. The Ferrari shared these great moments with the celebrity actor and photos show him at the wheel of the Spider 2935GT, in the company of these two actresses, themselves stars admired worldwide. In 1964, Alain Delon and his wife Nathalie travelled to California. The actor had the car sent out so that he could enjoy driving it around the streets of Los Angeles. It must have been at this time that the indicator lights on the side of the front wings were changed to correspond with American regulations. Under the passenger seat we found the original round indicator lights in their box ! On the period insurance certificate, an original document supplied by the son of the third owner, an address in Beverley Hills is recorded by hand. No doubt the actor noted this information down for his insurance company. In a photo taken in the United States in 1964, the Ferrari California is spotted at a gas station, with Nathalie Delon, while her husband checks the tyre pressures. In another photo, the couple are seen in Los Angeles, riding in their car. In July 1965, Alain Delon parted with the Ferrari California, entrusting its sale to Michel Maria Urman Automobiles, 40 bis rue Guersant, Paris XVIIe, a specialist in prestigious cars. It was bought on 2 August 1965 for the sum of 30,000 francs by Paul Bouvot, having covered just 37,000 km. At that time, Paul Bouvot ran the Style Centre of Peugeot, and as a designer, appreciated the California's exceptional styling. One day he confided to his son : " This Ferrari is a masterpiece, it is beautiful which ever way you look at it, with or without its attributes. " He was no doubt referring to the bumpers, which were sometimes taken off the car, as photos shown to us by his son Marc Bouvot reveal. Paul Bouvot registered the car on 18 August 1965, with the number 6101 RU 75. Over the course of a year, he covered some 25,000 km, not bothered about turning up at the Peugeot Style Centre at the wheel of this car, something that must have riled certain directors who would have preferred to see him arrive in a more classic Peugeot. Paul Bouvot was a passionate Ferrarista however. When he sold the California Spider in May 1966 to its fourth owner, Mr Robert Cooper (a Canadian living in Paris), it was to buy another Ferrari 250GT SWB California a few months later offered by his friend Jess Pourret. But that is another story... Robert Cooper kept the car for six months, before selling it at the end of 1966 to a Parisian sports car enthusiast who ran it until October 1967. The last but one owner of 2935GT was a doctor from Paris who kept the car for four years until it was acquired by Jacques Baillon in November 1971. And so 2935GT entered a prestigious collection that had been started during the 1950s by Roger Baillon, his father. Jacques Baillon drove the Ferrari very little, and like the majority of his cars, it soon found itself stored away, protected from the elements and bad weather. Marc Bouvot, whose father bought the car from Alain Delon in 1965, allowed us to consult his outstanding original documents (original Monaco number plate, original insurance documents in Alain Delon's name, copy of the Monégasque registration document, original leather folder). Also thanks to the reference book on the Paris Motor Show entitled "Les Ferrari au Salon de Paris-1948 /1988" by Dominique Pascal, with the collaboration of Jess Pourret and Marc Rabineau, we were able to put together a complete history file. The specialist's view " This highly sought-after automobile is presented today exactly as we found it, on 30 September, when we opened the garage door to the property. There it sat in front of us, in the dry, covered with a light veil of dust and several piles of magazines and papers. It has held up against the passing of the years better than the weight of paper...its boot is dented. However, it was imperative not to touch anything, as this was part of the story of this Sleeping Beauty, its originality, exclusivity and unique history. Every speck of dust is a record of the years it has been stored and kept safe from the elements. Protected from moisture, the body and the chassis are both sound. The lines of the original doors, boot and bonnet are straight. When you close the doors, you hear that characteristic sound of a motor car that has been preserved. The side windows are in plexiglas (would they have been original ?). The interior is original, with black imitation leather upholstery. The future buyer who slips in behind the wheel will take possession of the key to the glove box and will find a pair of tan leather gloves, dried over time, laid on top of tax discs from 1971 to 1975 that were never stuck on the windscreen. In the pocket on the back of the passenger seat he will find the original owner's manual and some old fuel receipts. In the back of the driver's seat he will discover the spare set of keys. On opening the boot, he will find two children's tracks that must have been hidden there by Jacques Baillon, a Christmas present for his children...his children never received these and they were left, forgotten, deep at the back of the boot...Next to them, a packet from the chemist, still in its plastic wrapper, along with several copies of the book by Paul Frère " La conduite en compétition ". The engine bay looks as if it has never been moved...never dismantled, and is intact still with the two original coils...incredibly rare. This automobile is a work of art, the last short chassis California with covered headlights, in original condition and untouched for the last 45 years, and probably never dismantled. This is the Holy Grail of GT Spiders, the ultimate reference in the history of the automobile and THE most beautiful cabriolet from the second half of the 20th century." Special bidder registration procedures apply to this lot. If you intend to bid on this lot you need to register your interest with Artcurial no less than 48 hours in advance of the sale. Estimation 9 500 000 - 12 000 000 € Sold for 16,288,000 €

  • FRAFrankreich
  • 2015-02-06

A B, Brick Tower

“The titles Richter has given this group of fourteen abstract paintings are not descriptive; they refer in a general associative way to his experiences of the city – to the chapels in Westminster Abbey, to the Tower of London.” Jill Lloyd, ‘Gerhard Richter: The London Paintings’ in: Exhibition Catalogue, London, Anthony D’Offay Gallery, Gerhard Richter: The London Paintings, 1988, n.p. The group of abstract paintings created for Richter’s 1988 show at Anthony d’Offay Gallery – his first major commercial exhibition in London – are indefatigably tied to their host city. From this corpus of fourteen so-called London Paintings created in response to a trip Richter made to London in 1987, A B, Brick Tower looms in exquisite swathes of richest red accented with strident kaleidoscopic underlayers of aquamarine blue, sunset orange, canary yellow and verdant green. Indeed, echoing the exquisite light effects and chromatic intensity of Claude Monet’s depiction of the Houses of Parliament and his iconic corpus depicting his water Lillie garden at Giverny, A B, Brick Tower, was included in the seminal exhibition at the Fondation Beyeler in 2002, Claude Monet… Up To Digital Impressionism. Displayed side by side, the parity between the Impressionist Master and the Master of Digital Impressionism is startling, with the present work delivering an opulent panorama of all-encompassing colour to rival Monet’s iconic Nympheas. Sumptuous impasto passages of viscous oil paint cover and reveal magnificent sediments of intense chromatic strata; an effect that conjures organic weathering and an atmospheric intimation of the painting’s urban title. While the painting’s name immediately evokes towering power station chimneys familiar to London’s twentieth-century industrial landscape, A B, Brick Tower also encompasses a more direct connection to the City of London whose history dates back to the settlement of the Roman Empire. Specifically, Richter’s painting takes its name from William the Conquerer’s medieval castle, the Tower of London. Named after one of the perimeter towers surrounding the central keep, this painting joins both Flint Tower and Salt Tower (two further towers from the twenty-one that surround the main castle) as abstractly anchored to a specific architectural monument. Within this corpus, the Towers’ companion pieces possess names that also anchor inchoate abstract fields of painterly abstraction to the chapels and saintly characters associated with the Tower of London’s central White Tower and those of Westminster Abbey: A B, St John, A B, St Andrew; and A B, St Bridget. Furthermore works from the London Paintings reference the general location of Westminster Abbey: A B, St James; while one monumental work possesses a more abstract allusion to the spiritual nature of ecclesiastical buildings: A B, Sanctuary. As with the extant thirteen works in this ground-breaking series, each follows a particular quality which is enforced by Richter’s subsequent titling. Alongside other works in this corpus, Richter conjures a mixture of evocations that complexly negotiate ecclesiastical and cultural references whilst at the same time eschewing literal interpretation. Indeed, far from performing a narrative function, these names operate within an intensely imaginative dimension rooted in Richter’s experience and anticipation of his London exhibition. Heralding its return, the appearance of this exceptional painting at auction in London marks a truly momentous occasion. Aside from acting as a tribute to London, the present work and its counterparts marked a distinct turning point in Richter’s career. Gaining representation in London by Anthony d’Offay was a significant coup for Richter, who was flattered to be exhibiting in the same space as some of the most internationally important artists of the late Twentieth Century, including Willem de Kooning, Carl Andre, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Agnes Martin, Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol (it was d’Offay who commissioned Warhol to make his greatest late works, the Fright Wig series of 1986). In tandem with attaining representation in New York in the early 1980s with Marian Goodman, Richter’s new relationship with d’Offay cemented his soaring reputation on the international stage. Alongside this, The London Paintings signify a concurrent step-up in Richter’s painterly investigation, heralding the very beginning of a decade that would produce the most arresting and extraordinary abstract pictures of Richter’s career. As Jill Lloyd presciently identified in her essay for the 1988 exhibition: “The complex weave of textures, colours and rhythms in these new paintings… results in a literal presence that is fuller, richer, more all-inclusive than in his previous abstract works” (Jill Lloyd quoted in: Exhibition Catalogue, London, Anthony d’Offay Gallery, Gerhard Richter: The London Paintings, 1988, n.p.). Testament to the remarkable calibre of this defining exhibition, a number of these paintings now reside in prestigious museum collections across the globe: The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington., D.C.; Tate, London; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; and La Caixa Foundation, Barcelona. Possessing an atmospheric power connected to famous British architectural monuments and affecting a viewing experience that evokes the atmospheric effects of Claude Monet, A B, Brick Tower sublimely registers beyond our sphere of cognition to deliver a rich poetic riposte to the sights and sounds of historic London. The Tower of London possesses a magnificently rich past. Built by William the Conqueror (first Norman King of England) as a battlement to subdue Londoners following his victory at the Battle of Hastings, the Tower complex is legendary for having served as an armoury, menagerie and Treasury, it is the home of the Royal Mint and Crown Jewels, and famously served as a prison during the Tudor era (Sir Walter Raleigh was in fact imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I in Brick Tower) associated with executions and the famous legend of the Princes in the Tower under the reign of Richard III. Its appearance in art history dates back to illuminated manuscripts, such as Froissart's Chronicles (circa 1400) which recount the Hundred Years War, or the Poems of Charles d’Orleans (circa 1480) in which the captive Duke of Orleans can be seen writing his manuscript from the Tower. Other famous art historical instances include various woodcuts and engravings, seventeenth-century depictions of the fire of London, Paul Delaroche’s iconic painting of The Execution of Lady Jane Grey (1833), as well as J.M.W. Turner’s maritime view of the Tower from across the River Thames of 1825. Immortalised within these art historical canons – from landscape through to history painting – in 1987 the Tower of London entered into the radical abstract canon of Gerhard Richter. As an artist who has sought a relentless and almost clinical rebuttal of representational painting within an age of photographic image distribution, Richter’s complex and deeply conceptual abstract practice is brought back to an evocation of the art historical past. One year prior to the execution of the present work, Richter stated as much in a conversation with Benjamin Buchloh: “I do see myself as the heir to a vast, great, rich culture of painting – of art in general – which we have lost, but which places obligations on us. And it is no easy matter to avoid either harking back to the past or (equally bad) giving up altogether and sliding into decadence” (Gerhard Richter in conversation with Benjamin H. D. Buchloh (1986) in: Hans Ulrich Obrist, Ed., Gerhard Richter: The Daily Practice of Painting, London 1995, p. 148). Intriguingly, Richter’s show at d’Offay also included a suite of landscape paintings, which at first viewing strike the viewer as natural successors to an art historical lineage of British landscape painters as epitomised by Turner, Constable or, as is oft mentioned, the sweeping panoramas of German Romantic painter, Caspar David Friedrich. This however is to simplify Richter’s highly conceptual relationship with image-making in all of its guises (both representational and abstract), which, rooted in the recognisable tropes of art history (from Romantic landscape painting through to Abstract Expressionism), looks to drive the possibility of painting into the Twenty-first Century. Herein, the astounding abstract presented in The London Paintings were the very first to fully draw a bridge between Richter’s very nascent foray into the dialectic between painting and photography. Coming full circle from the earliest Photo Paintings, the present work witnesses the full induction of the squeegee as the principle compositional agent. This in turn invited the means through which Richter was able to instigate “Photography by other means” (Gerhard Richter quoted in: ‘Interview with Rolf Schön, 1972’ in: Dietmar Elger and H. Ulrich Obrist, Eds., Gerhard Richter, TEXT: Writings, Interviews and Letters: 1961-2007, London 2009, p. 73). As redolent in A B, Brick Tower, the sheen of immaculate colour and endless permutations mimic the aesthetic of a cibachrome print, while a distinctly photographic quality is compounded by the out-of focus consistency in the sweeping accretions of paint. Evoking a blurred image and imploring the same searching cognitive viewing experience as his photo-works, the hazy coagulation of endlessly scraped pigment forms an extraordinary repost to the canon of twentieth-century abstraction via the photographic, mechanical and the aleatory. Within the sheer excess of layering and dynamic compositional facture these paintings emit an extraordinary wealth of enigmatic yet recognisable evocation. The incessant erasure and denial of formal resolution induces a reading of phenomenal forms associated with those found in nature. Readily evoking natural experiences such as rain, water erosion, or in this case the weathering of a brick wall, the abstract works derive their affect from a spontaneous naturalism. Where Richter’s Photo Paintings fall away into abstraction, the Abstrakt Bilder return us to a suggestion of referential representation. Though entirely disconnected from referentiality in both method and conception, Richter’s abstractions nevertheless elusively evoke natural forms and colour configurations. As outlined by the artist: “The paintings gain their life from our desire to recognise something in them. At every point they suggest similarities with real appearances, which then, however, never really materialize” (Gerhard Richter quoted in: Dietmar Elger, Gerhard Richter: A Life in Painting, Chicago 2009, p. 267). Thwarting the artist’s own compositional preconceptions, these works are forged by a reactive and aleatory dialogue via the means of their execution: the squeegee. The layered excavation and resonant accumulation of gossamer colour imparts an eroded surface reminiscent of myriad natural forms. Like a sunset, glorious and luminescent in reflecting the chromatic intensity of stunning optical effects, Richter’s canvas evokes the beauty frequently called forth by the contingency of natural phenomena: “amid the paintings’ scraped and layered pigments” describes Robert Storr, “shoals, riptides and cresting waves” reinforce an impression of venturing beyond abstraction (Robert Storr quoted in: Dietmar Elgar, Gerhard Richter: A Life in Painting, Cologne 2002, p. XIII). Such a reading is very much linked to Richter’s methodological dialogue with chance. Dragged across an expanse of canvas the pressure and speed of Richter’s application ultimately surrenders to the unpredictability of chance in informing composition and colour. It is this separation of the artist from direct expression that bestows Richter’s paintings with their inherently natural look. The shimmering and harmoniously artful orchestration of paint within A B, Brick Tower vacillates between an act of intense evocation and a simultaneous effacement of painterly form: ingrained within the present work’s destructive and unpredictable formation is an undeniable reflection of Nature itself. As outlined by Beate Söntgen; Richter’s method “joins the painted traces of the tools together with the layering and intersections of colour to form structures that are figural or landscape like in appearance, without ever solidifying into an object that is once again recognizable” (Beate Söntgen, ‘Work on the Picture: The Discretion of Gerhard Richter’, in: Exhibition Catalogue, Cologne, Museum Ludwig, Gerhard Richter: Abstrakte Bilder, 2008-09, p. 37). Comparative in both beauty and effect to Monet’s atmospheric and optical translation of his garden at Giverny or even his depiction of the Houses of Parliament across the River Thames, Richter’s A B, Brick Tower is nonetheless analogous to a wholesale inversion of the Impressionist master’s late practice. Correspondingly expansive, enveloping and utterly breathing colour, Richter shares Monet’s tropospheric yet abyssal chromatic impact. In the work of both it is the cognitive and sensory act of looking informed by a dense chromatic structure that drives visual affect. Clement Greenberg identified this as Impressionism’s most revolutionary insight, and it is this which Richter invokes and advances in his Abstracts. Where for Monet, nature was a point of departure to link the experiential stimulus of the outer world with an ineffable inner world of sensory perception, Richter’s outwardly incomprehensible plane of abstraction projects the interior world of sensory perception back into the exterior realm of natural reference. Rather than a perceptual and intensely subjective documentation of nature that verges on the abstract, Richter’s exercise in ostensibly objective and pure abstraction skirts the peripheries of a lyrical and expressive organic topography. Herein, Richter’s A B, Brick Tower, guised in the fuzz of televisual distortion, presents the viewer with an abyssal and chromatically resplendent vista, an approach to painting that, in echoing the title of Fondation Beyeler exhibition in which this painting was included, awards Richter the distinctly twenty-first century title of Digital Impressionist. Signed, dated 1987 and numbered 643-1 on the reverse 

  • GBRGroßbritannien
  • 2015-07-01


Exceptionally rare and highly important fancy vivid blue diamond

Centring on a brilliant-cut fancy vivid blue diamond weighing 7.59 carats, surrounded by brilliant-cut pink diamonds together weighing approximately 1.70 carats, to shoulders set with brilliant-cut diamonds, mounted in platinum. Ring size: 6 Accompanied by GIA report numbered 2155041817, dated 1 April 2013, stating that the 7.59 carat diamond is natural, Fancy Vivid Blue colour, Internally Flawless clarity; also accompanied by diamond type classification report stating that the diamond is determined to be a Type IIb diamond. Type IIb diamonds are very rare in nature and contain small amounts of boron that can give rise to a blue or gray coloration. Further accompanied by a GIA monograph, stating that "The Premier Blue is the largest round brilliant, fancy vivid blue, internally flawless diamond that GIA has ever graded." (April 2013) __________________________________ ORIGIN Blue diamonds are so rare that according to GIA, only 0.3% of coloured diamonds submitted to the laboratory are predominately blue regardless of its colour saturation. Natural blue diamonds owe its colour to trace amounts of boron particles within the diamond’s crystal structure; otherwise known as Type IIB diamonds, a very rare category in diamonds. Historically, blue diamonds were found in what we now know as the legendary Indian mines of Golconda, presently part of the State of Hyderabad. Most of the diamonds from these mines were alluvial, streamed from their origin to the river banks and beds. Given the factual relatively late discovery of alternative blue diamond sources, most historic blue diamonds would have Indian origin attributions. This is certainly true of the famed Tavernier Blue, known through the well-documented account by Jean Baptiste Tavernier in the 17th century. With the discovery of the South African mines at the turn of last century, in particular the Cullinan (Premier) Mines, blue diamonds were more formally introduced to the world rather than belonging to the realm of the mystic past. A HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE Jewels have always historically been intertwined with the fate of man. Rumoured myths, legendary curses, stories of royalty and tales of renowned jewelers are all fascinating facets that veil famous jewels with intangible mystery. One of the most celebrated “Blues” is the 45.52 carat “Hope Diamond”, now in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C.: Queen Marie Antoinette, American Heiress Evalyn Walsh McClean, House of Cartier, and Harry Winston were some of the notable owners of this famous blue diamond. The “Hope Diamond” is now considered to have been the precursor of the famed “Tavernier Blue” that had been cut twice, the first time from its original rough size of 112 carats to 67 carats, bearing the new name “Diamond of the Crown”, and then refashioned into its current weight of 45.52 carat, and renamed as the “Hope Diamond”, a cushion-shaped Fancy Dark Grayish-Blue Diamond, donated by Harry Winston in 1958. Other notable historic blue diamonds are the “Blue Heart” (Eugenie Blue), “Tereschenko Blue”, “Wittelsbach-Graff Blue”, and of course the mysterious and long-lost “Brunswick Blue.” MILLENNIUM BLUE DIAMONDS In celebration of the Millennium 2000, a unique collection of special blue diamonds was unveiled by De Beers, together with The Steinmetz Group. Titled the “Millennium Collection”, this collection showcased exceptional, rare and highly valuable diamonds in a specially designed exhibit at London’s Millennium Dome. The collection included eleven phenomenal blue diamonds of various shapes and weights totaling 118 carats, ranging in size from a 5.16 carat pear-shaped diamond to a 27.64 carat heart-shaped diamond, also known as “The Heart of Eternity.” As one of the most important collections of blue diamonds to be presented at one time, it took over two years to plan the manufacture of the diamonds and over countless decades to recover them. Nine out of the eleven diamonds have been graded by the GIA as Fancy Vivid Blue colour and two of Fancy Intense Blue colour. Very few blue diamonds in the market has had the  intensity or an even saturation as these Millennium blue diamonds. FANCY VIVID BLUE DIAMONDS AT AUCTION Whilst a very small number of important blue diamonds were sold at auction over the last two decades, it was not until 2007 when the landmark Sotheby’s auction in Hong Kong sold a 6.04 carat, internally flawless emerald-cut Fancy Vivid Blue diamond for a record price of US$1,321,495 per carat, breaking the 20 year old record held by the famous “Hancock Red”, and propelling all sizable Fancy Vivid Blue diamonds to new market levels of a minimum of US$1,000,000 per carat. Other notable blue diamonds at auction include the ”Begum Blue” (1995), “Wittelsbach-Graff Blue” (2008), “Star of Josephine” (2009), “De Beers Millennium Jewel 11” (2010), and the “Reza Blue” (2010). In October 2011, Sotheby’s Hong Kong set another new record of US$1,686,505 per carat for a 6.01 carat cushion-shaped Fancy Vivid Blue diamond. It is noteworthy to mention in context of the rarity of Fancy Vivid Blue diamonds, that there has not been a sizable matched pair of Fancy Vivid Blue diamonds ever to appear at auction, except for the unique pair of 5.24 and 5.58 carat pendant earrings sold at Sotheby’s Hong Kong in 2002. Earpendants set with Fancy Vivid Blue diamonds are usually fashioned in the very chic and striking “yin-yang” vivid blue and white diamond combination. Past auction examples include the pair of Fancy Vivid Blue diamond earpendants by Bulgari from the collection of Donna Simonetta Colonna, Duchess di Cesaro, sold at Sotheby’s Geneva in 2003, as well as the pair of earpendants by Cartier from the Collection of Betsy Cushing Whitney, sold at Sotheby’s New York in 1998. THE PREMIER BLUE The round brilliant-cut is one of the rarest shapes for coloured diamonds, as they are usually fashioned to best maximize the weight of the often irregular-shaped rough. Furthermore, it is even rarer to find a fancy coloured diamond successfully cut into a round brilliant while still showcasing the highest strength of colour. The combination of the best colour grading of vivid blue, with an internally flawless clarity, in a substantial carat size of 7.59 carats, renders The Premier Blue a very important and exceptional rare blue diamond. GIA notes in the accompanied monograph that “even more significant is the fact that, at the time of the printing of this Monograph, The Premier Blue is the largest round brilliant, fancy vivid blue, internally flawless diamond that GIA has ever graded. Of the highest clarity and colour, The Premier Blue adds to the long and alluring history of blue diamonds.”

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2013-10-07

1964 Ferrari 250 LM by Scaglietti

320 hp, 3,286 cc aluminum-block V-12 engine with six Weber 38 DCN carburetors, five-speed manual transmission, independent suspension with front and rear unequal-length wishbones, coil springs, telescopic shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars, and four-wheel disc brakes. Wheelbase: 94.4 in. The 23rd of only 32 examples produced; considered one of the very best in existence Shown at the Earls Court in 1966 Successfully and frequently campaigned by Ron Fry, David Skailes, and Jack Maurice throughout England, with countless 1st place finishes Formerly of the renowned Matsuda Collection in Japan Ferrari Classiche certified; retains all of its original mechanical components An exceptional 250 LM in every regard; one of the most important and sought after of all Ferraris RACING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Like all other 250 LMs, chassis number 6105, the 23rd of just 32 examples constructed, was destined for the race track. The Ferrari was ordered through Maranello Concessionaires by noted privateer Ronald Fry, a descendant of the prominent Fry family, who had made their fortune through confectionaries and chocolates in England starting in the 18th century. Ronald Fry was a seasoned racer, and it was no secret that his favorite cars were those from Maranello. Fry had traded in his 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO (chassis number 3869GT), which he had campaigned quite successfully over the 1963 and 1964 seasons, and with the arrival of the 250 LM in mid-September, he was obviously quite excited to get his newest Ferrari out onto the track. The 250 LM, boasting a new mid-mounted, 3.3-liter V-12, was developed for the GT class but forced to compete as a sports prototype. This was a drastically different automobile from earlier 250-series Ferraris. Nevertheless, it proved to be highly successful on the track, exhibiting spectacular poise due to its combination of handling and horsepower, which was beautifully mastered by a number of skilled drivers lucky enough to get behind the wheel. In 1965, chassis 5893 took 1st overall at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, making it the last Ferrari to ever do so, cementing the car’s place in automotive history. The 250 LM is widely lauded as one of the greatest Ferraris of all time by owners, historians, and tifosi alike, and it would appear that Fry would agree. In his ownership, it was very actively campaigned on hill climbs, sprints, and club races around England for the rest of 1964 through to 1966, often placing in the top three with his weapons-grade Ferrari. Taking a 250 LM to such events was the automotive equivalent of taking a gun to a knife-fight, and the car’s results speak for themselves. Chassis number 6105 (easily recognizable thanks to its registration number, RON 54) proved to be very successful in Fry’s ownership, and he often finished 1st in class and occasionally 1st overall. During the warmer months of the year, this car would be campaigned as often as four times a month. Seemingly every possible weekend that Fry could be out on the track in his Ferrari he made his way to an event and came home with a trophy in hand. In December 1965, Enzo Ferrari presented Ron Fry with a medal of recognition for his outstanding achievements in racing, which is a testament to the success of both Fry and his 250 LM. More importantly, even though the car was campaigned with much frequency, Fry never had a major accident, and as a result, the car remained in exceptionally original condition. This is an important point to note, as 250 LMs in particular were raced hard and consequently many fell victim to the hardships of motorsport. Therefore, it is nearly impossible to find an example that is in such original condition, boasting such extensive competition history, as 6105. In October 1966, chassis number 6105 returned to the Earls Court Motor Show, where it was displayed by Maranello Concessionaires in celebration of its racing success. Prior to the 1967 racing season, Fry sold his 250 LM in January 1967 to David S. D. Skailes, of Staffordshire, the owner of Cropwell Bishop Creamery in Nottingham, who reregistered the car on plates BFB 932 B. Shortly after acquiring the car, Skailes had the engine overhauled by the Ferrari factory in Maranello and, at the same time, had body specialist Piero Drogo install a long nose on the car, giving it a more distinctive front end. Skailes continued to race the car at events in the UK and even campaigned the car, with Eric Liddell, at the nine-hour race at Kyalami in South Africa, placing 6th overall. In October 1968, the 250 LM was acquired through Maranello Concessionaires by its third owner, Jack Maurice of Northumberland, who traded in his 275 GTB in order to make the purchase, and re-registered the car on license plates JM 265. Much like Ron Fry before him, Maurice continued to campaign his 250 LM on hill climbs and sprints around the UK, and the car returned to many of the same venues that it raced at under Fry’s ownership. For the 1970 season, Maurice had accumulated eight class wins, placed 2nd in the Shell Leader’s Hill Climb Championship, and won the Baracca Trophy and the David Poter Trophy for his exploits on the track. Following the success of the 1970 season, 6105 took a brief respite from competition and was featured in a pair of articles written by Jack Maurice for the Ferrari Owners’ Club UK magazine, a five-page article in the Winter 1970–1971 issue, titled "Speed-Hillclimbing in a 250 LM", and a two page article titled "The Duchess" in Autumn 1975. Maurice had the engine rebuilt at Diena & Silingardi’s Sport Auto in Modena over the winter of 1975/1976 and sold the car in 1976. After passing through Martin Johnson, chassis number 6105 was purchased by Richard Colton, of Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, and once more returned to the track under his ownership, participating in even more hill climbs and sprints around the UK. Following another four years of racing, Colton decided that his 250 LM was deserving of a restoration. To bring the car back to its original specifications, Colton purchased an original Scaglietti nose for a 250 LM from Robert Fehlmann, replacing the car’s Drogo long-nose, and had it fitted to the car during its restoration by GTC Engineering. Following the completion of the restoration, Colton showed the car at a pair of Ferrari Owners’ Club meetings in the UK, one in July at Eastington Hall and the other in September at Avisford Park. AFTER 20 YEARS ON THE TRACK Nearly 20 years after it was delivered new to Ron Fry, in 1984, chassis number 6105 was sold to its first owner outside of the UK, Mr. Yoshiyuki Hayashi of Tokyo. Hayashi kept the car in his collection for 11 years before it was sold to another esteemed Japanese collector, Yoshiho Matsuda, who also owned a 250 GTO and 250 Testa Rossa. In Matsuda’s ownership, the car was featured in a book on his collection, titled Rosso Corsa – Matsuda Collection, as well as pictured in issue 92 of Cavallino magazine and featured in the Japanese magazine Car Graphic. Following a brief stint in the United States for three years with Kevin Crowder, of Dallas, Texas, the car returned to Europe and was owned by Robert Sarrailh and Andrea Burani before being purchased by Pierre Mellinger, of Lausanne, Switzerland. In his ownership, Mellinger exercised the car frequently, being driven and enjoyed by him on several European driving events. Mellinger drove the car on the Italia Classica in September 2011 from Maranello to Venice and back, as well as in the Tour Auto in April 2012. Also in 2012, chassis 6105 was driven by Mellinger at the Le Mans Classic, taking to the track for the first time in more than 30 years. Prior to this, the car received over $100,000 of work at GPS Classic in northern Italy, excluding an engine and transmission rebuild. This 250 LM was sold to its current custodian later that year, as part of The Pinnacle Portfolio, and while in this collection, it has been beautifully preserved alongside other highly significant Ferraris. From the moment one first sets eyes on it, the sheer level of character and originality is instantly palatable. Although exhibiting slight signs of use from its more recent outings, it is evident that this is a very well-preserved and original example of one of Ferrari’s most celebrated racing cars. The car’s Ferrari Classiche certification only further confirms that it retains all of its original mechanical components. Additionally, it is offered with a spare, un-numbered 128 F-type engine, as well as an additional crankshaft and a set of Borrani wire wheels on Dunlop tires. Of course, the factory-correct appearance of its Scaglietti nose makes it all the more appealing. The opportunity to purchase a 250 LM at auction is a rare occurrence, but the opportunity to purchase a pure example with known history from new is an unrepeatable opportunity. As one of the finest and most original examples of the last Ferrari to win overall at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the importance of the 250 LM as a model, and chassis number 6105 in particular, simply cannot be understated. Race chart available within the catalogue description. Chassis no. 6105 Engine no. 6105 Gearbox no. 16

  • 2015-08-13

A sublime blue and white 'palace' bowl mark and period of chenghua

The acme of this revered type and a most delicate feast for the senses, elegantly potted with smooth rounded sides barely flaring at the rim, finely painted in muted washes of cobalt-blue accented with sharp outlines of a deeper hue, the exterior with a musk-mallow scroll undulating gently around the sides issuing four luscious blooms with tender flaring petals, interspersed with star-shaped leaves, their edges characteristically serrated, each bloom with a leaf daintily tucked and partially concealed behind, the meander of alternating flowers and leaves unpredictably syncopated with the sudden burst of a bud and its two leaves, as though permeated with life, all between double lines at the rim and foot, the interior with a central medallion enclosing a single stylised flower head within a double circle, encircled by a musk-mallow meander similar to that on the exterior barring some refined mutation, all beneath a double-line border, the body thinly veiled in a most sensual unctuous glaze The Cunliffe Musk-Mallow Palace Bowl Regina Krahl The porcelains of the Chenghua period (1465-87) can be considered the epitome of the unceasing efforts of the Jingdezhen potters at the imperial kilns to prove their originality in design and their outstanding craftsmanship. They represent the peak of material refinement and artistry, and are among the most idiosyncratic and distinct creations in terms of their decorative style. In all these respects the present bowl is an archetypal example. It would be difficult to find a piece of Chenghua blue-and-white that better embodies the special appeal of that period. The porcelain stone and glaze used for Chenghua imperial porcelains are arguably the finest ever achieved at Jingdezhen. The sensual pleasure of the touch of a Chenghua porcelain vessel is unmatched by porcelains of any other period, and the smooth, pleasing surface texture of the present bowl is unrivalled in its tactility. The ‘softness’ of the hard material can be gleaned even from a photograph. After a beginning where the Xuande period still supplied the main inspiration, the potters of the Chenghua reign arrived at their own distinctive style towards the latter part of the period. Palace bowls were made for only a few years towards the end of the Chenghua reign – opinions still vary between late 1470s to early 1480s, or just the 1480s. Unlike the crisp and glossy glazes of the best Xuande wares, those of the Chenghua reign are more muted, covering the blue design with a most delicate veil. The cobalt pigment is much more even than it was in the Xuande period, without any 'heaping and piling'. The attractive delicate tone seen on the present bowl is one of the trademarks of Chenghua blue-and-white. After decades of importing cobalt from the Middle East to achieve a deep and intense colour, native cobalt was deliberately chosen in the Chenghua reign – either on its own or in combination with imported pigment – to create a very different effect. The decoration is of a striking artlessness and immediacy, again in a deliberate move away from earlier models, focusing special attention on the material. With such new goals and high specifications at the imperial workshops, it is not surprising that Chenghua porcelains are extremely rare, in fact, the rarest Chinese Imperial porcelains. Liu Xinyuan graphically describes the volume of fragments recovered from the site of the Ming Imperial kilns, where the Chenghua (AD 1465 – 1487) fragments equal less than half those unearthed from the Xuande stratum (AD 1426 – 1435), even though the latter period was so much shorter (Liu Xinyuan 'Reconstructing Chenghua Porcelain from Historical Records', The Emperor's Broken China: Reconstructing Chenghua Porcelain, exhibition catalogue, Sotheby's London, 1995, p. 11). The scarcity of sherds at the kiln site is mirrored by the rarity of surviving examples. Of those by far the greatest number is preserved in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan, and in Museums in mainland China. Of the remaining examples most are today in museum collections. Only some two dozen Chenghua pieces of any type are recorded to be in private hands (see Julian Thompson's 'List of Patterns of Chenghua Porcelain in Collections Worldwide', ibid., pp. 116-129). What is generally known as 'palace bowls' are bowls of fine proportion, painted in underglaze blue with a flower or fruit design of apparent simplicity. Bowls with flower scroll decoration were of course also made in the Yongle (AD 1403 – 1424) and Xuande periods, but those of the Chenghua reign are unique in the deliberate irregularity introduced to a seemingly regular pattern. In the present design, blooms basically alternate with leaves, but on the inside one sprig of leaves appears behind a bloom rather than beside it, and on the outside an added bud similarly interrupts the regular rhythm. The stems therefore do not undulate in a predictable manner, but deliberately break up any symmetry. It is this slight deviation from the orderly arrangement – a daring and unique concept for imperial works of art, where any individual touch was generally shunned and machine-like precision and perfection were required – that makes this and other palace bowl designs vibrate, as if pervaded with some quiet motion. In this respect Chenghua palace bowls like the present example are quite unlike any earlier or later imperial designs. The musk-mallow design with its combination of softly rounded, multi-lobed flower petals and contrasting pointed, serrated finger-like leaves is perhaps the most spectacular design among the various palace bowl patterns, many of which have a plain inside. Only three other patterns exist of palace bowls painted both inside and out, one showing scrolling lotus stems, one lily scrolls (figs. 1 and 2), and one a gardenia scroll outside and a mixed flower scroll inside. The musk mallow is easy to identify through the classic botanical literature. It was used already on some Yongle vessels, but extremely rarely, for example, on a ewer in Topkapi Saray, Istanbul, illustrated in Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul, ed. John Ayers, London, 1986, vol. 2, no. 617, and an identical one sold in these rooms, 30th October 2002, lot 271. The depiction of the flower at that period was very different, lacking the clear distinction between darker outlines and paler washes, as well as the white rims of the petals seen on the present bowl. The present pattern exists in two slightly different variations, one with the scrolling leaf stems on the inside crossing, as in the present case, the other with the stems not crossing. The central flower-head is also derived from flower-scroll bowls of the Xuande period, see Mingdai Xuande guanyao jinghua tezhan tulu/Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Selected Hsüan-te Imperial Porcelains of the Ming Dynasty, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1998, cat. no. 61. Although the present flower is six-petalled, others exist with seven petals, again displaying the peculiar Chenghua tendency towards diversity. The Cunliffe musk-mallow bowl is one of only two bowls of this design still remaining in private hands, while eleven examples are in museum collection, six of them in Asia and five in Europe; none are preserved in mainland China or in the United States. Beside this piece only three such bowls have ever been offered at auction, one for the last time in 1951, another in 1973 and the third in 2009. Examples of this design have been recovered in fragments from the waste heaps of the Ming Imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, and one reconstructed example was included in the exhibition The Emperor's Broken China: Reconstructing Chenghua Porcelain, Sotheby's London, 1995, cat. no. 69. Companion pieces in Asia are four bowls preserved in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, recorded in the Museum's porcelain catalogue Gugong ciqi lu, part II: Ming, vol. 1, Taipei, 1962, p. 214, three of which have been published with illustrations, two in the Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ch'eng-hua Porcelain Ware, 1465–1487, Taipei, 2003, cat. nos. 33 and 34; the third in the exhibition catalogue Ming Chenghua ciqi tezhan [Special exhibition of Ming Chenghua porcelain], Taipei, 1976, no. 80. One bowl from the collections of Lindsay Hay and R.E.R. Luff, later in the Ataka collection and now in the Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, sold in our London rooms in 1946 and 1973, was included in the Museum's exhibition Imperial Porcelain: Recent Discoveries of Jingdezhen Ware, Osaka, 1995, pl. 229; another bowl from the collections of C.M. Woodbridge and Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Bernat, now in the Umezawa Kinenkan, Tokyo, sold in our London rooms 8th May 1951, lot 62, formed part of the Special Exhibition of Chinese Ceramics, Tokyo, 1994, pl. 263; and one sold at Christie's Hong Kong, 20 March 1990, lot 523, and 27th April 1997, lot 73, and at Sotheby's Hong Kong, 7th October 2006, lot 908, and 8th October 2009, lot 1692, is illustrated in Li Zhengzhong and Zhu Yuping, Taoci yanjiu jianshang congshu, 3: Zhongguo qinghua ci [Series on ceramics research and connoisseurship, 3: Chinese blue-and-white porcelain], Taipei, 1993, fig. 101. In Europe, a pair of bowls of this design from the collection of Axel and Nora Lundgren is in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, see Jan Wirgin, Ming Porcelain in the Collection of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. Hongwu to Chenghua, Stockholm, 1991, cat. no. 35; two similar bowls are also in the British Museum, London, one, from the collection of Sir Percival David, was included in the exhibition Flawless Porcelains: Imperial Ceramics from the Reign of the Chenghua Emperor, Percival David Foundation, London, 1995, cat. no. 1; the other from the collection of Mrs. Winnifred Roberts, given in memory of A.D. Brankston, is published in Jessica Harrison-Hall, Catalogue of Late Yuan and Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, London, 2001, no. 6:4; and a similar bowl in the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, in the Netherlands, is illustrated in Daisy Lion-Goldschmidt, Ming Porcelain, London, 1978, pl. 66. Chenghua porcelain remained greatly treasured throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. Ts'ai Ho-pi relates many anecdotes recorded in the historical literature attesting to the value and esteem of Chenghua wares in later periods (Ts'ai Ho-pi, 'Chenghua Porcelain in Historical Context', Sotheby's London, 1995, op.cit., pp. 16 ff.). The rulers most interested in collecting ancient ceramics, the Wanli (r. AD 1573 – 1620) and Yongzheng (r. AD 1723 – 1735) Emperors both had copies commissioned from the Imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, the former with his own reign marks, the latter with a spurious Chenghua mark. A bowl of this design of Wanli mark and period in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, was included in the Museum's 1976 exhibition together with an original piece, op.cit., cat. no. 79; a Qing copy in the Percival David Foundation, is illustrated in Oriental Ceramics. The World's Great Collections, vol. 6, Tokyo, New York and San Francisco, 1982, no. 252. The present bowl was one of three Chenghua palace bowls in the collection of Lord Cunliffe. The Rt. Hon. Rolf, 2nd Baron Cunliffe of Headley (1899-1963) was one of the most important collectors of Chinese art – ceramics of all periods as well as archaic bronzes, jades and snuff bottles. According to Roy Davids and Dominic Jellinek, Provenance, London, 2011, pp. 132-3, Bluett & Sons prepared a valuation of his collection after his death, which comprised some 600 items. He had acquired all three palace bowls together from Peter Boode in 1947 for a total of £ 475. Boode, an important dealer in East Asian art, had arrived in the Far East in 1913, had sourced many Chinese art works in the early Republican period and opened a gallery in Mount Street, London, in 1934, which closed around 1949. At Bluett’s selling exhibition in 1971 the present bowl was prized at £ 25,000. At Sotheby’s ten years later it sold for HK $ 4,070,000. The other two Cunliffe palace bowls were a pair, both of the lily pattern; one of them was sold in these rooms, 20th May 1980, lot 39 (fig. 1); the other was sold at Bonhams London, 11th November 2002, lot 67 (fig. 2), where the original Boode invoice was illustrated in the catalogue, and is now in the Xiling collection, illustrated in Regina Krahl, Xiling Collection, n.p., 2011, p. 40, no. 16.

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2013-10-08

Superb and highly important fancy vivid purple-pink diamond and diamond

Centring on a pear-shaped fancy vivid purple-pink diamond weighing 8.41 carats, to a stylized mount pavé-set throughout with circular-cut diamonds, mounted in platinum, signed Sotheby's Diamonds. Ring size: 5½ Accompanied by GIA report numbered 1162202561, dated 27 June 2014, stating that the 8.41 carat diamond is natural, Fancy Vivid Purple-Pink colour, Internally Flawless clarity, with Excellent Polish; further accompanied by diamond type classification report stating that the diamond is determined to be a Type IIa diamond. Type IIa diamonds are the most chemically pure type of diamond and often have exceptional optical transparency. Also accompanied by a signed box. Most pink diamonds through the formation process tend to have less than desirable clarity and also tend to suffer from an inherent trait of internal graining, which affects the brilliance and luster. This 8.41 carat pink diamond is remarkable for its very crisp crystal and internally flawless clarity as well as being “highly transparent and very clear”. This diamond is rare for its size, beautiful hue, and exemplary rich saturation of colour. _______________________________ SOTHEBY'S DIAMONDS Since 2005, Sotheby’s Diamonds has presented limited edition collections of diamond jewellery and bespoke pieces through a partnership with the leading international expert in diamond cutting and polishing. Each stone from Sotheby’s Diamond is hand-picked and every design meticulously handcrafted by European-trained artisans. The exquisite settings and breathtaking designs are either unique or of a limited production numbering ten or fewer pieces. Weaving innovation with tradition, Sotheby’s Diamonds collections feature creative pairings, juxtaposing rare and important diamonds, sometimes with unexpected materials including wood, ceramic and steel. Whimsical while classically beautiful, each and every Sotheby’s Diamonds piece is an individual masterpiece—at the heart of which is always one-of-a-kind diamond. At Sotheby’s Diamonds salons in Hong Kong and New York, these exclusive creations, as well as magnificently set single-stones and rare diamonds and coloured diamonds of unparalleled quality, are available year round. Beyond the salons, Sotheby’s Diamonds will showcase stunning diamond jewellery at the Hong Kong Autumn Sales at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre this 3-8 October. The collection will also be presented at select events in conjunction with the auction calendar throughout the year, as well as at trunk shows in Beijing, Taipei and Singapore among other locations. Contemporary yet timeless, Sotheby’s Diamonds form a perfect marriage of art and jewellery, continuing the Sotheby’s tradition of bringing together the most discerning collectors with impeccable works of art. A HISTORY OF PINK DIAMONDS “A coloured diamond is a touchstone of the universe, a little something God created that man can’t always find…they are the last frontier of collectable.” – R. Winston 1986 The story of this pink splendor was set nowhere else but in the ancient mines of South India, the land blessed with the world’s purest and most famous diamonds, and the only source of diamonds known to men before the 18th century. Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a French merchant and adventurer who was best known for acquiring the Tavernier Blue Diamond the he subsequently sold to Louis XIV, first made a reference to rose diamonds in early 17th century. According to Tavernier’s account, this enormous pink rough weighing over 200 carats was shown to him by moguls in kingdoms of Golconda in 1642 during his second voyage to the East. Valued at 600,000 rupees almost four hundred years ago, this diamond named ‘The Grand Table’ is still the largest pink diamond known to date. In his book ‘The Six Voyages’, he later drew a picture of two pale rose coloured diamonds that he purchased in India circa 1668. Many of the world’s most famous pink diamonds, such as The Darya-i-Nur, Agra, Le Grand Condé, The Hortensia and Shah Jahaan, very likely originated in the famous Kollur mines, near Golconda in Southern India, adorning crowns and jewels of kings and moguls during that period. Some made their journeys into Europe and were sold or presented as largesse to monarchs and the royals. The exact source of some other famous ones is not known, and some quite large pink diamonds have been recovered from alluvial deposits in the interior of Brazil and Africa in more recent times. Natural pink diamonds over a carat are extremely rare to come by; some would say it is beyond rare. The famous ‘Williamson’ pink, currently part of the British Crown Jewels, was presented to Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) on the occasion of her wedding on 20 November 1947. Taking its name from its finder, Dr. J.T. Williamson, this pink diamond is one of the most illustrious modern day finds from South Africa. In the late 1980s, encouraging soil samples led geologists in search of diamond mines to North West Australia. After a decade looking through kimberlite sites, they finally discovered the Argyle mines, which now supply approximately 90% of the world’s pink diamonds. Yet, despite this significant discovery, their paucity remained stupefying. Only 0.1% of the twenty million carats of rough produced annually is pink, and a whole year's worth of production of these pink treasures over half a carat would fit in the palm of your hand. The majority of the produce qualified as ‘pink’ are usually around twenty points and of low clarity. Currently there are no other pink diamond mines in the world, and any discovery of pink diamond deposits would take at least a decade’s time up to the actual production. As this rare treasure draw more and more attention from gem connoisseurs and aficionadas around the world, the demand of the alluring pinks far exceeds the supply. Whenever a pink diamond over 5 carats is put up at an auction, it naturally assumes a pivotal position in the auction room, drawing waves of approving gasps when it fetches astronomical prices time after time. It does not take an expert to admire this nature’s marvel, and their dreamlike colour never disappoints. That, is the magic of pink diamonds. MYSTICAL PINK – TRANSFORMING DEFECTION INTO PERFECTION It is widely known that diamonds are formed by carbon atoms bonded together in a crystalline lattice that does not absorb any wavelengths of light, thus affording it a white or more accurately, colourless appearance. The whiter its colour, the more precious it is, such is the belief of the majority, because purity is that ultimate rarity. Yet fewer would understand that it is exactly these ‘impurities’, which gemmologists call ‘trace elements’, that account for the vibrant array of hues found in natural coloured diamonds. Each colour is nature’s unique recipe, and only the most subtle balance of ingredients can culminate in a substantial beauty too mesmerizing to be true. Nitrogen and boron are the contributing factors to yellow and blue colours in diamonds; pink, however, kept its own secret far beyond comprehension of researchers. Natural pink diamonds have what is known as a defect centre. With enough of these defect centres the diamond may take on different properties, such as absorb certain wavelength of green light, lending it a pink appearance when light reaches our eyes. How this exactly happens still baffle gemmologists and scientists around the world. What researchers are sure of is that one or more of the carbon atoms in the diamond lattice may be missing or replaced with a different element in the defect centres. This is a result of plastic deformation of the diamond during its geologic history in the earth, usually when it is in semi-solid state. Layers of carbon atoms that are parallel to the orientation of the applied stress are displaced slightly along gliding planes. These glided planes of atoms appear needle-like and are known as pink grain lines or pink graining. The concentration of these bands of graining is directly related to the strength of the pink colour, the more graining there are, the more intense the pink colour. Hence, the critical conditions required for the formation of pink diamonds and the passage as they travel to reach earth surface often result in less than desirable clarity. It is fair to say that pink diamonds come naturally with a certain extent of graining. The linear pattern of surface graining can sometimes be moderately visible; whereas internal graining may give the diamond an overall hazy appearance. For a pink diamond to exhibit a homogenous and saturated pink colour without the obvious shortcoming of graining, a very delicate balance must be achieved, needless to say, completely shunned from human intervention. At the pinnacle of Mother Nature’s mastery is this 8.41 carat fancy vivid purple-pink diamond, displaying not only an evident sweet pink colour, but to be hailed for its exceptionally rare internally flawless clarity with no graining whatsoever and of a most beautiful hue of pink of intense saturation. True perfection, by all odds. QUOTES “Crystal” is a term that is sometimes used in gemmology to describe the appearance of top quality gems that is ‘highly transparent and very clear’. The 8.41 carat Fancy Vivid Purple-Pink diamond is a gem that the term crystal is aptly applied. It is a rare combination of size and saturated colour with an Internally Flawless clarity grade. - Tom Moses, GIA Senior Vice President of Laboratory and Research “Mined by De Beers, and fashioned from a diamond rough of over 18 carats, and through meticulous cutting and polishing, this flawless 8.41 carat vivid purple-pink diamond is a remarkable gift from Mother Nature, through Man’s creative aspiration and technical mastery.” “Pink is adored for its flattering feminine colour : it is the gentle flakes of cherry blossoms in Springtime April; it is delicate cotton candy floss melting at the tips of innocent fingers: it is the cheeks of a new-born tucked into a soft woolly quilt; or a precious dream sailing on chartaceous carnations.”

  • HKGSonderverwaltungszone Hongkong
  • 2014-10-07

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